1. What does the research indicate in terms of the major determinants and outcome associated with trust in leadership?
  2. Explain the process through which individuals with a certain set of traits might emerge in leadership roles.
  3. How do leaders influence others? What are their sources of power?
  4. What is legitimate power?
  5. The expectations regarding the relationship between leader reward and punishment behaviors and group cohesiveness, drive, and productivity are based on what two basic assumptions?
  6. Why is understanding the relationship between leaders and groups important?
  7. Describe what we now know about the important of leader-member exchange quality.
  8. Employing the path-goal theory of leadership, analyze how and why leader behavior is related to subordinate motivation. Describe the process through which leader behavior impacts subordinate performance and satisfaction.
  9. What role does ethics play in leadership? Do you believe that some people abuse it? Why or why not? Provide examples.

Major Determinants & Outcome associated with trust in leadership

Leadership is the capability of an individual to influence several people with their talks, actions, and thoughts. People always tend to listen to whom they admire, and they will tend to follow these leaders blindly. This type of trust develops over the time which will be helpful in evaluating the major outcomes which were based on the determinants (Arnold, 2017).

The research in terms of major determinants of trust in leadership is the capacity of the leaders to advice, the ability of the leaders to follow whatever they preach and leaders should be a good transmitter and good receiver. The outcomes which are associated with trust in leadership are that followers will be self-motivated, followers can be categorized easily according to their actions and also helps in creating the positive influence on followers and drive the followers on a good path.

Traits in Leadership Roles

For a leadership role, possession of certain skills and mindset requires which helps the people through the several challenges of leadership. Also, the traits are the abilities which are required for the successful leader. It involves the communication skills, interpersonal skills and the ability to take effective and efficient decisions.

A leader should have the capacity to analyze the situation, people, objects, and problems and learn from it. They should be truthful and kind when dealing with people and has a sense of emotional intelligence to achieve the targets. The leader having good emotional intelligence is more successful. The leadership should have the high integrity and have a sense of ethics. A leader should also have the trait of self-analysis which helps to access their own failure and success and also avoid the mistakes. The ability to maintain the healthy workplace is the part of leadership trait which also helps in maintaining the balance in work-life (Nahavandi, 2015).

Leaders Source of Power

A leader influences others by showing the interest in their person’s feelings, thoughts, views and give value their contribution. They also influence by listening to the problems of others and encourage and motivate them to find an appropriate solution for their problems. They communicate and connect with other persons on a regular basis and also shows trust and respect for them. They also value the opinion of the other person while making any of the important decision.

The source of power of the leader is coercive power in which he can give punishment, legitimate power in which a leader has authority to influence the activities of an individual according to the position and reward power in which a leader can give a reward to an individual for their good work (Abudi, 2011).

Legitimate Power

Legitimate power is based on the perception in which a person has the right to prescribe his behavior. Basically, it is the form of the positional power based on the individual position in an organization. It is derived from the formal position in the organization’s hierarchy of authority. For example, in an organization, workers report to the managers and manager has the power to assign the work to their juniors (Merchant, 2017).

In this, the person who has the higher position of the organization has the power to control over all the people who are lowering in the position in the organization such as the CEO of the company controls all the workers work in that organization.

Leader reward and punishment behaviors

The first basic assumption is that the leaders who perform the contingent punishment and reward are more effective as compared to the other leaders who are non-contingent. So, the leader who follows the contingent reward system in their organization is good as compared to the other organization leader who does not follow this strategy (Podsakoff, 1985). Another basic assumption is that the subordinate acts, behave and reacts is based on the punishments and rewards. So, if the worker of the organization performs well then, he will be awarded, and if he did not perform well, he would be punished.

Relationship between Leaders and Groups

To understand the relationship between the leaders and groups is important due to the following reasons: (Davis, 2014)

  • For appreciating the value of a leader.
  • For analyzing and understanding their power.
  • To exchange the thought with each of their subordinate.
  • For effective communication in which they discuss the conflict openly with the team members.
  • To work towards reducing the misuse of the power.
  • To challenge, assume and serve the responsibility.
  • For maximizing the technology for effective group communication.

Importance of Leader-Member Exchange Quality

The leader-member exchange theory describes the relationship which a leader develops with each of the team members. The leadership relationship is different with different members. It is based on the employee performance, trust, hard work, efforts and positive behavior. The leader when finds that a particular employee is extraordinary as compared to others then they tend to develop the positive image of that employee. The leaders always try to give the most challenging task to these employees and also provide them their extra support. These differences determine the success and failure of the leadership and members of leader-member exchange quality (Mind Tools, 2017).

If a leader provides the same motivational level and support to all employees who they think are not good to give the challenging tasks helps the leader to understand these employees. Leader-member exchange quality demonstrated that the leader and his perception are causing the relationship to be positive for the overall organization.

Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

The path-goal theory of leadership is the need of the leaders in order to provide the satisfaction to the followers for performance and motivation. It will happen for various conditions of task such as ambiguous, boring, lack of challenge and unstructured. Path-goal is non-repetitive, ego-involving tasks in which the employees are more satisfied when they are participating (Anderson, 2016).

The behavior of the leader impacts the performance and satisfaction of the subordinate as the effects of the leaders is seen in the areas of the followers. Also, there are situational factors due to which the leader behavior is contingent.

Role of Ethics in Leadership

Ethics plays an important role in an organization. The ethical leader and ethical leadership determine the way in which the culture of the organization can accept and exercise the ethical actions. The leadership behavior and its acceptance of the ethical codes determine the ability of the culture to motivate the workers of the organization. Ethical leadership determines that whatever done by the leader is right and motivate the employee for the same thing (Cave, 2000).

Some of the people abuse the ethical code as they think it is satisfactory to their self-interest or they think that they are not treated equally. For example, some employee breaks the ethical code by stealing the personal information of other employees and give to other companies. They are doing this because they think they are not compensated according to their work.




Kelloway, E. K., Turner, N., Barling, J., & Loughlin, C. (2012). Transformational leadership and employee psychological well-being: The mediating role of employee trust in leadership. Work & Stress26(1), 39-55. doi:10.1080/02678373.2012.660774

Nahavandi, A. (2015). The art and science of leadership. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Abudi, G. (2011). The 5 Types of Power in Leadership | The Fast Track. Retrieved from http://www.quickbase.com/blog/the-5-types-of-power-in-leadership

Merchant, P. (2017). 5 Sources of Power in Organizations | Chron.com. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/5-sources-power-organizations-14467.html

Cave, J. (2000). Ethics and Leadership? Retrieved from http://geniusone.com/articles/EthicsAndLeadership

Podsakoff, P. M., & Todor, W. D. (1985). Relationships Between Leader Reward and Punishment Behavior and Group Processes and Productivity. Journal of Management11(1), 55-73. doi:10.1177/014920638501100106

Davis, J. C. (2014). The critical importance of a positive relationship between leaders and followers and the need for communication. Retrieved from https://sites.psu.edu/leadership/2014/03/09/the-critical-importance-of-a-positive-relationship-between-leaders-and-followers-and-the-need-for-communication/

Mind Tools. (2017). The Leader-Member Exchange Theory – Management Skills From Mind Tools. Retrieved from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/leader-member-exchange.htm

Anderson, P. (2016). What is Path-Goal Theory? Retrieved from https://sites.psu.edu/leadership/2016/06/29/what-is-path-goal-theory/