What is meant by individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, time orientation, and fatalism (locus of control)? How might each play a role influencing leadership?

All the terms are explained below along with their impact on the leadership:

  1. Collectivism: Collectivism is the process to give priority to the group achievements over individual achievements. If the cultural element is opposite of individualism. A person who follows collectivism, focus on communal, societal, or national interests in various types of political, economic, and educational systems. The leaders also act like a collectivist to bring the group towards the success.
  2. Power distance: In society, the lower ranked person believes that the powers are distributed unequally. The lower ranked people believes that they got less power distance as compared to higher ranked persons. The power distance might become an obstacle between the leader and followers to accomplish the common goals.
  3. Uncertainty avoidance: Under the concept of uncertainty avoidance, the people avoid the situation of uncertainty to accept the changes. This helps a leader in a positive manner and also the leader to motivate the team member to avoid uncertainty and accept changes (, 2016).
  4. Time orientation: The time orientation is affected by the two major factors, e., the value of time and management of time. Paying more attention over the past time may affect the leadership in a negative manner.
  5. Locus of control: The locus of control explains one’s beliefs regarding controlling the events in the environment. The locus of control has a positive impact on the leadership, but this control must be handled with intensive care.


What does the concept “substitutes for leadership” mean?

The concept of substitutes for leadership is a leadership theory developed in 1978 in by Steven Kerr and John M. Jermier. According to the theory, different situational factors can enhance, neutralize, or substitute for leader behaviors (Lunenburg, 2010).


Distinguish between neutralizers and substitutes in leadership.

Both the concepts fall under the substitutes for leadership which reduce the leadership control over the subordinates.

Substitutes are the variables that originate the situation which implies that leadership is not important for the subordinates. Substitutes also decrease the reliability factor of the subordinates over the leader. For example, professional orientation and ability of subordinate are main characteristics of subordinates.

Neutralizers are the variables that block the influence of the leader over the subordinates. With this variable, the leader loses the effect over the team, subordinates, and the organization. For example change in the behavior of subordinates when it came to rewards (Novinson, 2017).


Explain role ambiguity in terms of supportive leader behavior.

Role ambiguity refers to those situations when the employee in the organization is not satisfied with his or her role. Role ambiguity affects the perception and the role of the employee in the organization. These types of employees believe that they are less responding with fewer command employees as compared to those employees who have high command over the organization. The employees who have issues regarding their roles in the organization are most likely to suffer from role ambiguity. This problem originates from the role structure and design. The leaders then play an important role to motivate those employees (Srikanth & Jomon, 2013). The leaders take two steps in this situation:

  • In the first step, the leaders detect those employees who are suffering from the role ambiguity. It is the initial way to eliminate the role ambiguity among the employees.
  • In the second step, the leaders find the way to motivate them and inspire them to do well in the organization to achieve a higher Most of the times the leaders got successful in his mission. The leader also motivates those employee to sustain their commitment towards the organization.


Describe what occurs in a relationship between a follower and a leader who share a charismatic relationship.

In the charismatic relationship between the leader and the follower both shares adorable bond. The charismatic leader leads the team, and the follower does not make an argumentative decision with the leader. In this team of relationship, the followers enjoy the comfort with the leader as they do not even try to struggle to find out any solution to an existing problem. The charismatic leader, with his influenced personality and expertise, guide them for the relevant solution. He also encourages the team as well as the followers (Gardner & Avolio, 1998).


What are the consequences of charismatic relationships? Explain and give examples of each.

The consequences of charismatic leadership are both positive and negative. Under the negative consequence of charismatic leadership includes the absence of independence among the team members and the followers. The team members are so dependable on the leader; they can’t even try to find their own way towards the solution. Another negative consequence of charismatic leadership is the leaders do not emotionally connect with the team members and the followers. For example; they do not share any point of view and idea with others. The leaders believe that rest of the people can’t manage to match the standard.

A positive consequence of charismatic leadership is, the leaders inspire their followers and draw solutions for the existing problems. For example, the leaders motivate the followers to do well in the task. Another positive consequence of charismatic leadership is the leaders are very skilled communicators. They can easily create influence over anybody with their skilled communication. For example, they can easily motivate the team by influencing them with their skillful communication (Riggio, 2012).

What is transformational leadership? What are the different dimensions of transformational leadership?

Transformational leadership is the type leadership in which the leader collaboratively participates in the tasks given to the subordinates. The transformational leader identifies the need for change and also bring the required changes. The transformational leaders also motivate the subordinates to sustain their momentum towards the organization. The working of a transformational leader is based on the 4i’s, and they are intellectual stimulation, inspiration, idealized influence and individualized consideration (Schieltz, 2016).

  1. Intellectual stimulation: Under transformational leadership, the leader supports his subordinates in their decision-making process and acknowledging efforts and creativity.
  2. Inspirational motivation: The leader always inspires the employee to work more productively. With the clear vision, the leader also motivates the employees. For this, the leader must have an excellent communication skill.
  3. Idealized influence: The transformational leader always acts a role model and also displays his personality to others. The leader always guides the team members towards the right path.
  4. Individualized consideration: Leader always pays an individual consideration towards every employee in the organization. As because the transformational leadership believes that employee in the organization is equally important.

What individual and group outcomes stem from transformational leadership?

Under the transformational leadership, the leader openly involves in each and every task which is conducted by the team members. He concentrates on the performance of teamwork as well as on the individual work done by the employee. Both the individual and group outcomes are effective under the guidance of a transformational leader. Because the leader puts the extra efforts to make sure that strategies work for everyone in the organization (Kokemuller, 2016).

What is Machiavellianism? What are the dangers associated with leaders who have a strong Machiavellian orientation?

A person who always thinks about only his or her interest area and use others to fulfill his or her interns are called Machiavellianism. Machiavellianism is the type of trait which is also known as “dark trait.” Machiavellianism in the workplace is the deployment of duplicity and cunning strategies. The term Machiavellianism is taken from the book “The Prince” written by Machiavelli. The Machiavellian can only manipulate on specific situations where it is compulsory to achieve the required objectives or goal. A model of Machiavellianism which is based on organizational settings have some factors, and they are manipulative behaviors, maintaining power and harsh management tactics. A leader having these type of Machiavellianism qualities will not get respect as much as he deserves. A leader must be a collectivist not individualist. It is the responsibility to always decide concerning his subordinates. If the leader with strong Machiavellianism oriented than he will not get the desired respect may face the situation of revolt, etc. (Therapy, 2015).


















Work Cited

Therapy, H. (2015, January 8). What is Machiavellianism in Psychology? – Harley Therapy? Blog. Retrieved from https://www.harleytherapy.co.uk/counselling/machiavellianism-psychology.htm

Riggio, R. (2012). Cutting-Edge Leadership. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/cutting-edge-leadership/201210/what-is-charisma-and-charismatic-leadershi

Smit. (2016). What is Uncertainty Avoidance? Retrieved from https://culturematters.com/what-is-uncertainty-avoidance/

Lunenburg, F. (2010). Substitutes for Leadership Theory: Implications for University Faculty. Retrieved from http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Lunenburg,%20Fred%20C.%20Substitutes%20for%20Leadership%20Theory%20FOCUS%20V4%20N1%202010.pdf

Kokemuller, N. (2016, October 26). Advantages and Disadvantages of Transformational Leadership. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-transformational-leadership-20979.html

Novinson, E. (2017, September 26). Leadership Neutralizer Theory. Retrieved from https://bizfluent.com/info-7762369-leadership-neutralizer-theory.html

Schieltz, M. (2016, October 26). Four Elements of Transformational Leadership. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/four-elements-transformational-leadership-10115.html

Srikanth, P., & Jomon, M. (2013). Role ambiguity and role performance effectiveness: moderating the effect of feedback seeking behaviour. Retrieved from http://web.usm.my/aamj/18022013/art%206%20(105-127).pdf

Gardner, W., & Avolio, B. (1998, January 1). The Charismatic Relationship: A Dramaturgical Perspective. Retrieved from http://amr.aom.org/content/23/1/32.abstract