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Identify a true statement about social–cognitive theorists.

  1. A) They believe that people are typically good and are predisposed to exhibit ethical conduct.
    B) They note that people engage in intentional learning by observing others.
    C) They define psychology as the scientific study of behavior, not of behavior and mental processes.
    D) They believe that human social behavior is solely based on hereditary principles.


__________primarily study the changes—physical, cognitive, social, and emotional—that occur throughout the life span.

  1. A) Human factors psychologists
    B) Social psychologists
    C) Developmental psychologists 
    D) School psychologists
    E) Select

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Amelia is a general physician. One of her patients claimed to be suffering from constant stomach aches. After running some tests, Amelia concludes that the patient is not suffering from any medical disorder. However, the patient insisted that she has stomach cancer. The patient was then made to participate in an experiment where she was given sugar pills and was told that it was a new medicine for treating cancer. Some other participants in the experiment were also given sugar pills. This best exemplifies _____.

  1. A) a volunteer bias
    B) a placebo
    C) a nocebo
    D) debriefing


In contrast to structuralists, Gestalt psychologists claimed that one cannot explain human perceptions, emotions, or thought processes in terms of basic units.

  1. A) True
    B) False


Jane is a practicing psychologist who assesses the mental status of people charged with crimes and shares her findings with the courts. Jane is most likely a(n) _____.

  1. A) health psychologist
    B) forensic psychologist
    C) industrial psychologist
    D) environmental psychologist


Which of the following statements is true of the experimental method of research?

  1. A) In the experimental method of research, participants in control groups obtain the treatment being tested.
    B) The experimental method fails to answer questions about cause and effect.
    C) In the experimental method of research, participants in experimental groups do not obtain the treatment being tested.
    D) The experimental method allows psychologists to control the experiences of participants and draw conclusions about cause and effect.


__________stresses people’s capacities for self-fulfillment and the central roles of consciousness, self-awareness, and decision making.

  1. A) Behaviorism
    B) Humanism
    C) Structuralism
    D) Functionalism
    E) Select


__________is defined as a way of evaluating the claims and comments of other people that involves skepticism and examination of evidence.

  1. A) Introspection
    B) Critical thinking
    C) Reinforcement
    D) Conditioning
    E) Select


When following the scientific method, psychologists usually begin a study by:

  1. A) formulating a research question.
    B) testing a hypothesis.
    C) calculating correlations.
    D) modifying theories.


Which of the following is a principle of critical thinking?

  1. A) Avoid being skeptical.
    B) Choose critical thinking over research ethics if required.
    C) Oversimplify problems if necessary.
    D) Insist on evidence.


Paulina is a kindergarten teacher. Every time one of her students answers correctly during her alphabet classes, she uses phrases like “Well done” and “Keep it up.” Her behavior exemplifies reinforcement.

  1. A) True
    B) False


Carl is conducting a study to determine the effects of the new technology-assisted learning methods among students. As part of this study, he has selected a group of university students, male and female, in the age group of 18 to 24 years. These students have been using the new methods of learning. In terms of research methodology, this group best describes a _____.

  1. A) control group
    B) population
    C) placebo group
    D) sample


__________is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

  1. A) Physiology
    B) Psychology
    C) Sociology
    D) Ecology
    E) Select


Ravi is unable to choose the right career path after completing his college education. He plans to visit a psychologist who might help him find the right career. In this scenario, Ravi is most likely to visit a human factors psychologist.

  1. A) True
    B) False


The measured results, or outcomes, in an experiment are called__________.

  1. A) dependent variables
    B) volunteer biases
    C) correlation coefficients
    D) stratified samples
    E) Select