End of chapter Review Questions

Book: Taylor, Robert W.; Caeti, Tory J.; Loper, D. Kall.; Fritsch, Eric J.; Liederbach, John: Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism, 3/e Pearson Education, Inc., 2014. ISBN-13: 9780133458909


Chapter 6

What is the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970? How has the advent of computer technologies created ways around this Act?

The Bank and Secrecy Act of 1970 is an act which is intended to seek the assistance of backs to prevent money laundering. There are many online payment processing techniques that may still be used to launder money. For example using online offshore bank accounts is one of the way to launder money.

What is phishing? How does phishing fit into the problem of identity theft?

Phishing is a techniques used by fraudulent people to send emails to people claiming to be reputed company representatives and asking for information. For example you might get an email that may appear to be from your bank asking for your personal information hence stealing your identity information.

Chapter 7

What is the difference between a virus and other types of malicious code?

Viruses are programs that attach to other programs and make copies of itself to harm computer systems, while malicious codes are in itself complete programs that could have unexpected functions and harm computers.

What are the most common types of viruses?

There are many types of viruses. Some of them are boot sector viruses, direct action viruses, resident viruses, polymorphic viruses and so on.

What variables are used to distinguish and classify viruses?

Computer viruses are distinguished by the way and areas they attack. For example these viruses may attack the boot system functions or file systems in a computer.

What is a Trojan horse? What are the various types of Trojan horses?

Trojan horse are infectious programs they appear to be absolutely good but have inside of them viruses that could attack a computer system. Its different types are Exploit, Backdoor, Rootkit and DDos.

What is a worm? How do worms differ from traditional viruses?

The function of the worm is similar to virus in the sense they both rely on replication process of itself. The difference that exists is that worms do not need host files to replicate and can act stand alone.

What are virus hoaxes? Why are the hoaxes sometimes more dangerous than an actual virus?

Virus hoaxes are false alarms about viruses found in a system. They may be more dangerous as they may compel a person to install antivirus solution as suggested in the hoaxes which could easily penetrate the computer systems.

Describe how the creation of malicious software is changing due to varying motives?

The technological world is evolving rapidly. Therefore, the need to write even more sophisticated malicious software always exists that could hunt even the safest computer systems. This is the changing motivation behind malicious software.

Chapter 8

What are the various types of exploitation that can occur over the Internet?

There are many types of exploitations that can occur over the internet. For example people may be racially abused over it. Children may be sexually exploited over it and people may be blackmailed over it. Also financial frauds are common over the internet.

What are the characteristics of the typical victims of Internet exploitation crimes?

The principal characteristic of such victims is that they may keep quite as they may not be able to produce who and how they were abuses and victimized. They may end up with financial loses and even have psychological issues. Children are the primary target of such crimes.

What are the characteristics of the typical perpetrators of Internet exploitation crimes?

These perpetrators may not be as violent as other exploiters in the physical world are. These perpetrators look for underage people to exploit. They may not even have a previous history of any crimes committed.

What is cyberbullying, and how is it different from real world bullying?

Cyberbullying is a form of bullying that is committed through electronic means like emails, online chats or over social media. It is different than real world bullying as it may characterize primarily of mental stress and emotional torture while ream world bullying may also consist of physical harm.

What is cyberstalking?

Cyberstalking is the use of continuous electronic communication to harass other people. For example someone might receive continuous emails that contain frightening or harassing material.

What types of offenses can occur that could be defined as cyberstalking?

Cyberstalking could cause mental destress to people which is an offense and may be punishable with the issuance of restraining orders and probations.

What are the primary types or categories of stalkers?

Some of the types of stalkers are:

Rejected stalkers

Resentful stalkers

Intimacy seekers

Incompetent suitors

What are the primary federal laws that target Internet exploitation?

Following is a list of laws that is targeted at internet exploitation:

Child Protection and Sexual Predator Punishment Act of 1998

Child Abuse Act of 1990

Mann Act

Child Abuse Prevention Act

1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act

Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act

Protect Act of 2003

How prevalent is child pornography on the Internet?

Internet child pornography offence occurs if sexual related material to underage children is either uploaded or downloaded. Unfortunately, it has become a wide spread behavior and irrespective of the laws and measures against it, it prevails over the internet.

How do pedophiles and other child exploiters use the Internet to commit their crimes?

Pedophiles and other child exploiter may come in interaction with children by portraying themselves to be of the same age and passions. They may make friendships with these children and get access to material of different kinds that can be used to blackmail these children and exploit their innocence.

What role does child pornography play in child molestation?

I think that child pornography is a form of reinforce to the pedophiles who could get more urge to conduct acts of child molestations after they have been watching child pornography. Child pornography may even generate such a behavior in people who are not other child molesters.

How has the Internet changed the landscape of prostitution and the sex trade?

The internet has facilitated prostitution and sex trade in my opinion. In the past, you could only access a prostitute or sex traders who were in physical contact with you, but now, you only need to get on to the internet and find them.

What is sex tourism?

Sex tourism is a form of tourism in which people may travel other places to engage in sexual activities. For example a person may go to a cheaper country to find prostitutes.

What are the primary challenges that law enforcement agencies face in investigating cyber exploitation?

Cyber exploitation has become a sophisticated crime. Investigation and law enforcing agencies may find it hard to locate cyber exploiters. Even if they may find them, they may be out of the jurisdiction of the investigators and law enforcing agencies.