K-12 Education

What are the learning outcomes for grades K-12, by states? What is the level of funding for K-12 schools, by states?


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Slide 1: Title Slide

Slide 2: K-12 is the short form for the school education levels that start at Kindergarten and end at the grade 12. This system is used in Canada, US and some other countries. As it can be seen in the graph, it includes 6 years of primary education, 4 years of junior high school and 2 years od senior high school.

Slide 3: Learning Outcomes o K-12

Slide 4: Different states in the US define the learning outcomes under the following basic broader outcomes umbrella. Different states might have different numbers of outcomes and under different names. They are: knowledge, skills, think, performance and understanding

Slide 5: K-12 education is aimed at enabling the students to be able to gain the necessary knowledge that is presented to them in the courses that are taught to them. They are expected to be able to know the basic idea behind the course material that is presented to them. These students are taught over the time to know how facts can be extracted from the educational material.

Slide 6: The course provides a theoretical framework as well practical life guidelines. The students are expected to learn the course theory and then apply it to the practice. These students are also expected to develop thinking and reasoning skills (Cognitive operations) to process information presented to them.

Slide 7: Being able to think analytically and logically is an important aspect of K-12 education. The students are expected to think creative solutions to the problems that they are presented to them. These students learn from there educational material as well their personal experience and then they are expected to apply this learning to making decisions and solve new problems.

Slide 8: Students are expected to develop rational thinking over the time so that they understand the importance of the real life they will get into once they are done with their education. These students should understand the reason behind education and how and why they should use their educational and personal skills to build a successful career. They should also the importance of managing their finances over their life time.

Slide 9: Students are expected to apply their knowledge, skills and understanding in their practical like. They are expected to perform well in their real like and be effectively involved in real life decision making and problem solving.

Slide 10: Summary: K-12 education is expected to equip students with reading and writing as well thinking creatively and logically as a student progresses over to the upper grades. The ultimate expected outcome is to prepare the student to get into a college or a university to choose a practical field of education that can help the student pursue a successful career.

Slide 11: Level of Funding for K-12

Slide 12: K-12 education gets funding from the federal government as well from the states and local levels. According to the US constitution, the primary responsibility of K-12 education is with the states. Looking at the importance of education, Federal government has increased its funding into K-12 education over the past years.

Slide 13: In 2004-05, states and local districts contributed 83% to the overall K-12 education. Out of this, 45.6 percent was provided by the states, 37.1 by the local districts and 8.9 percent was the share of the private sector, mostly in the form of the private schools.

Slide 14: Federal fund amounts to around 8.3 percent of the total K-12 education fund. These funds are directly sent to the states and local governments were they are then spent by individual schools. Federal funds are provided to be spent under specific programs. Some of these programs are:

  1. Title I: Provided $13 billion to local districts high poverty areas
  2. Reading First: Provided over $1.1 billion to promote scientific means of reading
  • Improving teacher quality grants: $2.9 billion for teacher development and training.


Slide 15: Thanks You!