This paper is based on the chapter titled as Ethics and Human Resource Management. The paper describes the definition of ethics as well as its difference from morality. Along with that it also explains the moral relativism. The paper highlights the more significant point that CSR is just a PR if not considered the HR. It also explains the utilitarianism along with shareholders participation in setting ethics for the firm.

2.1 What is ‘ethics’? How does it differ from ‘morality’?

Ethics is characterized as the standards of behaviors perceived in regard to a specific class of human activities or a culture or a specific gathering while morality manages the investigation of individual’s standards or propensities concerning wrong or right dimension. Morality is at last an individual compass for measuring bad or good. Ethics are created from a social framework while morality originates from inside a person. Ethics are subject to others for definition. They have a tendency to be reliable inside a specific setting, however can differ between settings. Then again morality is generally steady, despite the fact that can change if the convictions of an individual change. Ethics are administered by proficient and legitimate rules inside a specific time and place while morality rises above social standards.

2.2 What is ‘moral relativism’? Give an example from a business context.

Moral relativism is the view that moral judgments are valid or false just in respect to some specific point of view and that no outlook is exceptionally favored over all others. It has frequently been related with different cases about morality: eminently, the proposition that distinctive societies regularly display fundamentally unique moral esteems; the foreswearing that there are all inclusive moral esteems shared by each human culture; and the request that we should abstain from passing moral judgments on convictions and actions normal for societies other than our own. For example, at workplace prohibiting gender discrimination is a form of moral relativism when compared in USA business market while it doesn’t hold true as moral relativism in context of Saudis business market. Americans do hold equality of genders while hiring and dealing with them in any dimensions at workplace.  

2.3 ‘Corporate social responsibility without HR is just PR.’ Do you agree? Why? Why not?

It is generally observed that organizations that have consolidated CSR in their corporate procedure and have been performing exercises in this regard are more alluring for exceedingly qualified workforce and are more aggressive in market. On the off chance that the organization wouldn’t like to lose the most important resource, i.e. credibility, at that point the CSR turns out to be just a PR action. While in reality there is eventually an inside administration understanding, inner correspondence standards, the abilities and learning potential, the center estimations of the organization, the corporate culture that give the related CSR standards of transparency, responsibility, sustainability and sustainability. This gets unavoidably the HR as the focal point of perception while implementing the CSR.

2.4 What is ‘utilitarianism’? Give an example of a utilitarian argument in human resource management.

A philosophy of utilitarianism holds that an activity, a rule or a law is correct just on the off chance that it delivers a decent, ideal, or the best result. As indicated by this logic, an activity is morally right if its outcomes prompt satisfaction and no torment, and wrong in the event that it closes in torment and misery for most percentage of humans. This makes various arguments for HRM. The essential contention of utilitarianism in HRM is not considered regardless of whether an activity, the policies of HRM or the law, or a hierarchical administer is correct however with whether it conveys enhanced performance and productivity results for the organization when applied by the human resource.

2.5 List some human rights that are relevant to the work context.

Business has a lawful duty to ensure that everybody who works for them is dealt with respect and equality. As an employee, an individual is shielded from discrimination in the working environment and he likewise has a right to speak freely. Managers can be considered legitimate in charge of work environment if there is victimization, bullying, discrimination and sexual harassment. This incorporates positive obligation and making sensible modifications alongside offering safety and security to employees. An employee additionally has a privilege for opportunities for development and profession enhancement.

2.6 What is the ‘stakeholder’ approach? List the key stakeholders in a typical work organization.

Shareholder’s approach has risen up out of the zone of applied business ethics. The possibility of the shareholder approach is that managers fundamentally have an obligation to augment the interests of the entire shareholder’s in the way that is still allowed by social values as well as law. Numerous individuals and groups have a “stake” in how an association performs, aside from just the shareholders and members of the board. Some significant shareholders of a firm are employees, employers, investors, customers, suppliers and the more extensive community.

2.7 Give an example of an ethical code of conduct? What are the key characteristics of a good code? How can they improve standards of behavior?

A code of ethics, also called a set of accepted rules or code of conduct, sets out the values, ethics, goal and responsibilities of an organization. An elegantly composed code of ethics should also offer direction to employees on the most proficient method to manage certain ethical situations. Each code of ethics is distinctive and should mirror the values, ethos and business style of an organization. Some codes are short, setting out just broad guidelines, and others are substantial manuals, encompassing an immense assortment of situations. The standards of behaviors can be enhanced through legitimate usage of the set of principles as well as rehearsing and imparting that code on special occasions in business life cycle. An example of code of conduct is outlined below:

  • Show integrity
  • Serve customers to maximum limit
  • Support each other at work
  • Show admiration
  • Avoid useless conflicts
  • Follow the laws

2.8 What mechanism does HR have to ensure stakeholder participation in organizational decision making?

The process of stakeholder engagement is employed by an organization to involve the people that may affect and are affected by the decisions of the firms. HR can employ stakeholder’s participation through employee participation and suggestion boxes while going for a decision as well as stakeholders’ bi-annual or annual meetings to as for their inputs for enhanced decision making. Social forums now days can also offer a best option for discussion of a decision that is under consideration.  




Rose A. (2007). Chapter 2 Ethics and Human Resource Management. pp: 27-40.