What are the four contingencies of reinforcement? Explain each and provide an example. 

Four contingencies of reinforcement?

Positive Reinforcement

Positive reinforcement is a reaction that takes after a conduct and has the impact of improving the probability of that conduct happening again – by giving a positive ordeal as a result. Examples:Giving a child food or a toy for a job well done (assuming that the food or toy is desirable in that context).

Negative reinforcement

Negative reinforcement is a reaction that takes after a conduct and has the impact of improving the probability of that conduct happening again – by evacuating a negative boost.

Examples:A student receives help when he requests help after struggling with a problem.

Extinction

Extinction happens when a conduct is trailed by no reaction, which diminishes the probability of the conduct happening once more.

Examples:John is disruptive in class and is placed in a time-out room where he cannot be rewarded for disruption.

Punishment

Punishment is a reaction that takes after a conduct and has the impact of diminishing the probability of that conduct by giving an undesirable affair as a result.

Examples:A convicted thief is imprisoned for robbery (Learn Net).