Paraphrase the passage below


Questions of essentialism have been central to recent discussions of identity and identity politics. Is a sense of gender, race, or sexual orientation as innate and inborn, or at least as unitary and persistent, the only possible basis for resisting domination and oppression? Or can such politics be rooted in an identity defined as “an active construction and a discursively mediated interpretation of one’s history?” (de Lauretis 263). Some, like Gayatri Spivak, have argued that a feminist politics can be rooted in a “strategic essentialism,” constructed by a subordinate group as a ground for organizing and resistance.


Taken from:

Kolmar, W., & Bartkowski, F. (Eds.). (2010). Feminist Theory: A Reader (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.



Choose one of the proverbs below, and paraphrase it using your own words and sentence structure:



  1. Actions speak louder than words. Doing the job is better than saying you will do it.
  2. Don’t judge a book by its cover. Avoid forming an opinion about something until you try It .
  3. Two wrongs don’t make a right. If someone does something unjust, then that doesn’t mean you should seek revenge
  4. The way to a man’s heart is through his stomach.


Discussion of identity and identity politics is a sense of gender, race, sexual orientation(innate-inborn)






Look at the paraphrasing examples 1 – 4 below. Which do you like? Why? What do you dislike about the other three?


Original Text:

“Ladies and gentlemen, if we glance to human history, the story of women is the story of injustice, inequality, violence and exploitation.”


Example 1:

The context is so complex and dangerous, in many patriarchal societies and tribal societies the story of women is the story of injustice, inequality, violence and exploitation.


Example 2:

Injustice, inequality, violence and exploitation are all part of the story of women in human history.


Example 3:

The story of women is the story of prejudice, abuse, grievance, and exploitation.


Example 4:

Yousafzai believes that throughout history, women have been treated unfairly and abused in many different ways. 

Paraphrase the passage below and submit:


“You see, in patriarchal societies, right from the very beginning, when a girl is born, her birth is not celebrated. She is not welcomed, neither by father nor by mother. The neighborhood comes and commiserates with the mother, and nobody congratulates the father. And a mother is very uncomfortable for having a girl child. When she gives birth to the first girl child, first daughter, she is sad. When she gives birth to the second daughter, she is shocked, and in the expectation of a son, when she gives birth to a third daughter, she feels guilty like a criminal.”