Four Views on Epistemology

Epistemology is a part of philosophy that studies how we get knowledge about different subjects, what are the grounds and boundaries of our knowledge, how reliable or unreliable is human knowledge. Empiricism, Idealism, Rationalism , Constructivism are 4 views of Epistemology.


The empiricists claim that knowledge is the product of human experience. Naive empiricists Our ideas and theories need to be argued in reality and then decide whether or not to hold this theory based on the degree of match between it and the fact that since then, the core problem of empirical philosophy has become the test of this consistency.


The rationalist believes that there is no knowledge or thought from the sensory experience. This can be seen from a lot of experience. These ideas may come from the structure of the human brain, or they are independent of the brain. If they exist independently, they can be understood by humans when they reach a necessary degree of complexity.


Objectivism is the cognitive theory of Ain Rand, which is similar to plain realism. She also believes that we gain knowledge from the outside world through senses. Objectivism is the feeling of unprocessed information is automatically incorporated into the perceived object by the brain, where the consciousness senses the information, rather than being created or invented in any way.


in philosophy, it goes back to the views of Vico, Berkeley and Kant. According to Constructivism “knowledge is a compilation of human-made constructions”, “not the neutral discovery of an objective truth”. Constructivism offers new descriptions for knowledge and truth that make a new paradigm, grounded on inter-subjectivity as an alternative of the classical objectivity, and on viability as of truth.

Who are ALL of the representatives for EACH of the 4 views?

The empiricists are well represented by John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume etc.

Constructivism goes back to the views of Vico, Berkeley and Kant.

In Rationalism the major rationalist figures are Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza.

In Objectivism the prominent representative  is Ayn Rand


  • How would EACH of the 4 views answer EACH of the Epistemological questions?
  • What METHOD is associated with the representatives for addressing Epistemology?

logical reasoning is associated with the representatives for addressing Epistemology