Course Name: The principle of Child development

Chapter 8: Physical and Motor Development

This chapter described the physical and motor development and the importance of this development for children. This chapter also explains the effect of the physical and mental health of children on the development process. This chapter focus in the preschool and kindergarten period and in the areas such as physical, health, mental, safety and nutrition development. In this period the height and weight of a toddler are increased, and this is based on the six factors: Heredity, nutrition, medical conditions, sleep, exercise, and emotional well-being. The weight and height of the toddler are depending upon these factors. Marcon is work on the physical development and connects the physical development with the cognitive and social development. Poverty affects the physical development of the toddler (Charlesworth,2004).

If the toddler gets the proper diet and nutrients during the preschool period, then they developed an effective manner. Adults notice the signs that show that a toddler has some health problems such as the scalp, red eyes, sudden weight loss or gain, skin rashes, ear drainage, and sudden behavior changes. These health problems affect the physical and mental development of a toddler. For the healthy body, the toddler must perform some activities such as wash hand before and after eating, brush teeth daily, take proper sleep, wear clean and safe clothes. Health insurance is very important for the effective and proper development of the child. In some countries, some programs are working for the healthcare insurance. Physical fitness is essential for the child development. In the preschool period toddler perform some physical activities daily that help to improve the physical and mental development.

Some children are disabled then many they perform some different type of physical activities. Mental health is also important for child development. Teachers and parents are responsible for the healthy mental health. They provide the atmosphere in which a child develops his mental health. Stress is affecting the mental health of toddler therefor parents and teacher can help to be stress-free. For the physical and mental health children are must go to the doctor for the full body checkup. Nutrition’s are required for the growth and development of the young child. In the daily diet of a toddler, parents must add vegetables, fruits, juices, proteins, and gains. Proper diet and nutrients provide the physical, mental and cognitive development in the future. People live in poverty are not able to give the proper nutrients to their toddler which affect the physical and mental development of a toddler (Charlesworth, 2004).

Obesity is the problem that is occurred between those toddlers that have poor eating habits and perform fewer physical activities. The children who have the obesity can face the many health problems such as high cholesterol level, high blood pressure. Market and restaurant food can increase the weight of a toddler. This decreased the physical and mental development of a toddler. In the development of children safety is the major concern. Safety is related to the safety of children from pets and the environment. The safety is a concern with the indoor and outdoor safety. Indoor safety contains the safety in the kitchen, from dogs, fire, and water. Children like to play with the pets hence parents make sure that children play with the care.

Parents and teachers can give the safety education to the children. They must provide the secure and safe place to the children that do not cause an accident and illness. Parents and children both required the nutrition, safety and health education. Nutrition education increases the attitude and knowledge of children during good nutrients. Safety and health education give the knowledge about the mental and physical development. With the physical growth motor skills are also increased. Development in motor skills can increase the muscle and body development of children. Motor skills are increased from the age 2 to age 7. In this period fundamental skills are also developed such as running, jumping, sliding, kicking and catching (Charlesworth, 2004).

Chapter 9: The Cognitive system, concept development, and intelligence

This chapter described the cognitive system and cognitive development theories given by the Piaget and Vygotsky. Cognitive development is related to the brain development of the children. cognitive development means the perception of the children in the world. The interest and thinking of the children are contained in the cognitive development. The cognitive system is related to the working of the brain. The cognitive system contains the three parts: functioning, development, and structure. Jean Piaget and Vygotsky give the theory of cognitive development. Piaget said that in cognitive development the brain of all children is working in different manners. Piaget gives the four stages for cognitive development. The mind of the children is working differently from the adult’s mind. According to Piaget, children are learning from their own vies but according to Vygotsky children learn from the society and culture. The theory of Piaget and Vygotsky have some common points such as development can be gain from experience, natural and social development are interacting with each other and take place simultaneously and the development is achieved by changes in children thinking (Charlesworth, 2004).

The cognitive structure is related to the knowledge and thoughts of the children. In the cognitive structure, children have increased their knowledge about things. Theory of mind contains the information about the how and when the brain of children is developed. The cognitive structure contains the mental representation of the mind. Cognitive functioning is related with the how cognition works. All the activities and actions of the children are related to the cognition development. Cognition functioning is also included in the response of the children. the response may be given by writing, speaking and facial expression. Cognition functioning is related to the internal activities of the brain such as thinking, organizing, associating, recalling and reasoning. Cognitive structure and functioning contain the input, processing, and output of the children’s mind.

Concepts are the basic parts of the cognitive development of children such as people, animals, houses, cars and other things. In the cognitive development, children think that their point is right rather than the adult’s point. The operation is the actions of the children in the cognitive development. Children are also developing some basic concepts such as logical thinking, conservation, ordering, causality, and spatial concepts. Conservation is related with the ability to understand the concept of the things. Ordering is also related to the cognitive development. Ordering means children place the things in some order according to their views such as color, size, and weight (Charlesworth, 2004).

Piaget theory gives the many methods to teach the children with proper planning. Learning can be increased from the children’s point of view rather than the adult’s point of view. Adults must know about the learning and observing level of the children and then they teach them. Vygotsky theory is related to the effect of the social interaction on the development of children. this theory contains the experience and knowledge of the children. t is very important to know that how the brain is working in the cognitive development. Brain development contains the processing and perception of children. intelligence is described as the ability to promote opportunities for the development in the future. Six types of views are used in children development: psychometric, information processing, successful intelligence, cognitive development, ethological and multiple intelligence. IQ test is used to check the level of brain development of children, but this test can hurt children. nondiscriminatory tests are also used to determine the mental ability of children, but it is according to the age of children. the intelligence of children increases the innovation and creativity in children (Charlesworth, 2004).

Chapter 10: Oral and writing Language development

This chapter described the rules and learning process of the language. This chapter also contains the relationship between the thought and language and effect of thought on the culture and language. Language is essential and important for the children development. This is the major education tool that transfers the culture from one generation to the next generation. The language contains the symbolic and gestures that help to communicate with each other. Many rules are used as the language rules, but this chapter described three main rules of language: how sounds are important for meaningful way, place word is such manner that it becomes meaningful word and semantic and pragmatic rules of language. Different languages have different phonemes, morphemes, semantic, syntax and pragmatic. The language development process is very complex, and children can learn a language according to their mental ability (Charlesworth, 2004).

Language and thoughts are related to each other and it is very important to know about the relation between the language and thoughts. The thoughts and language of children are developed during the age two. According to Piaget’s theory, thoughts don’t affect the language but language help to know about the thoughts of children. the thoughts are expressed by the language, but language and thoughts are not interdependent. According to Vygotsky’s theory, the thoughts of children develop from the culture and society. Culture has the great impact on language development of children. children see the different culture and learn how different culture use the different language. Children can learn language according to the culture in which they live and way to people interaction. Dialect is the major concept in language development and it is the standard of the language. Children are not first learning the English language. First, they learn their own language then they learn English according to requirements.

In the age, 3 children speak like adults and communicate with the other persons. Children learn about the need of the modification and use of the language when they communicate with others. in the childhood children are spending more time in playing games and during the games, they can learn many things. Games are the important source for the language development of children. children’s language development contains the four functions: interpretive, directive, projective and relational. These functions help children to know about how language is used in different situations (Charlesworth, 2004).

Language development can increase the literacy between children. children learn to read and write the words and sentences. Literacy development can be increased by the parents and teachers at home and schools. Parents play important role in language development and teachers play important role in literacy development. The literacy development contains the four stages: beginners’ stage (age from birth to 3), novices (age from 3 to 5), experimenter (age from 5 to 7) and conventional writer and reader (age 6 to 8). If the effective and proper environment is provided to the children, then they can develop language skills faster. In the language development, children learn about the reading and writing sentences. Reading and writing teach us to know about the meaningful words. The balance between the reading and writing teach us about the meaningful words and their sound. Reading instructions are very important for language development and reading instruction are listed as phonemic awareness, fluency, phonics, comprehension, and vocabulary. The writing skills of children can be improved by the drawing. In the learning and reading, development identification of word is the first step. Children develop their language skills from the printing sources such as magazines, newspapers, books and mobile phone adds. Writing of the children can show the interest and culture of the children. Social has a great impact on the development of reading and writing (Charlesworth, 2004).

Chapter 11 How Adults Enrich Language and concept development

This chapter described the language diversity and instruction of the teaching language. His chapter also contains the roles and responsibilities of the adult in oral and diversity language development. The intention is related to the balance between the instruction of children and adults. Adults provide the accurate environment to their children and children choose the activities. This approach is used by the adults to know about what children are thinking. This gives the effective method to implement teaching on the language and literacy development. Adults give the instruction and guidelines to their children about the language development and language experience. Parents and teachers can use the proper conversation with their children so that they can develop their language skills.

Adults used the supportive strategies for the child language development. Children required proper information about the language until they understand the concept of the language. Language development is increased by the different stages and according to the ability of the children. children can develop the language by using the meaningful and proper sentences during communication. During the age of 2 to 4 parents teach the simple and easy words to their children so that they can easily speak that world. This is known as baby talk. After that adults teach their children another words and sentences. Different children learn the language in different ways because all people have different culture and customs. All people speak different language therefor their children are also speaking a different language. Children speak the language according to their cure, tradition and parent’s language. Parents teach only home language to their children, but teachers teach different language to their students according to the requirements of the country.

English is not the primary language, but it is important for all children to learn about English because English is the used in almost all countries. Reading and writing a language is used by all people to achieve their goals. Reading and writing are very important at homes as well as schools. Media and television provide the more opportunities for the developing reading and writing skills. At homes, parents can use the social media and electronic books for the reading and writing development. In the school’s teachers are more focus on the letter name and letter sound. Children learn how to write and speak different letters. When they learn about the letter then they focus on the words (Charlesworth, 2004).

In the learning development play is the important and major medium. Children learn more by playing games rather than other mediums. Adults can use many sources for reading and learning development such as television guide, phone book, and magazines. Some dramatic plays are also increased the learning development. In the kindergarten child play many games and learn new things but in classroom children not allowed to play games. The play also increased the literacy development. Children learn from the different activities and improve their innovation and creations. Children see the paintings, drawings, writings, and other creations and they are inspired by these creations. They think about their own creations and become creatives.

Adults can increase the creativity of the children by providing the appropriate environment, proper motivation and guidance. All the children have different creativities and interests, but they don’t know about their abilities. Adults can help children to know their interests. Creativity is related to the way of thinking and people give respect and value to creativity. Drawing and writing increased the creativity of children and it is based on their own interests. Children have more interest in art and drawing. They draw many things by their imagination such as animals, family pictures, trees and natural scenes (Charlesworth, 2004).


Charlesworth, R. (2004). Understanding child development: For adults who work with young

children. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.