Course Name: The principle of Child development

Chapter 12: Affective development

This chapter described the development of children in effective areas such as social, personality, self-concept and emotional development of children. Many theories are related with the effective development such as fraud, Erickson, Roger and Maslow, jean Piaget and Vygotsky. The theory of fraud is related with the personality development. Theory of Erickson is related with the how personality development is affected by the social environment. Roger’s theory explains the self-concept development and Maslow theory explain the self-concept development by actualization. The theory of Piaget contains the relations between individual and social environment. Vygotsky theory explains the cognition development as social activity. In the age 6 and before 6 the effective development focus on the self-development but after age 6 the relations with others increased and development is affected by environment and another people’s behavior.

The emotional development is occurred in young childhood. The main specific emotions that are developed during the young childhood are anxiety, sad, anger, happiness, attraction love and fear. In the emotional development children are learning to express their feelings and opinions. The emotional development of children is generally increased in the preschool and school. Sad, anger and fear emotions are bad and negative emotions. Happiness and humor are the good and positive emotions. Internal and external environment factors affect the emotional development of children. The emotional development also promotes the attachment, dependency, hostility and stress.

Personality development of children contains the nice, pretty, cute, confident, aggressive and shy. Many characteristics are contributing in personality development of child such as sex typing, sexuality, cultural difference and self-concept. The sex typing means how children recognize as male or female. The personality development of male and female is different because both has different characteristics. Culture of the society effect the personality development of children because behavior of children is influenced by the society culture.

In the development of children, understanding of sexuality is very important. It is related with the behavior, standard and awareness of children as male or female. In the sexuality development children are also learn about the anatomy and reproduction. Development of self-concept is related with the development of body image, social-self, cognition-self and self-esteem. In the self-concept children are learn about their body image and how body looks physically. Self-concept contains the development of ethics, culture, aptitude, mental and respect the feelings of others. family and teachers are play important role in the self-concept development of children.

Social development is important to increase socialization between children. The theories of Piaget, Ericson, Maslow, Roger and Vygotsky are focused on the social development of children. According to the Piaget, Erickson and Vygotsky theory the learning and playing are important tool for the social development of children. According to the Maslow and Roger theory, adults play important part in social development. In the social development relationships with other people are also increased. The social development is increased in the school age of children because in this age children are more interact with other people and understand about the society. Social competence is also promoting during the social and relation development. In the social development children are learn about the self-regulation in which children learn to control their feelings and emotions. Peer relations are also developed in young childhood in which children are create relation with the children who have same age, gender and development level. Peer relations increase the companies, friendship, models and reinforces. Peer relations are very helpful for personality and mental development. In the young childhood children are getting morale values and they become able to identify the right and wrong actions. The prosocial behavior of children is also developed such as empathy, sympathy, helping and generosity. Children learn that aggression and violence is wrong action. The disabled children can develop if they have opportunities to sit with the abled children and promotes social development.

Chapter 13: How Adults support affective development

This chapter described that development of children in effective is very complex and closely related with the cognitive and psychological development. National association for education of young children (NAEYC) provide the guidelines for effective development of children. They create community of learner that help to children in effective learning development. NAEYC encourage children to learn about the respect, value of adults and treat adults with dignity. These are two important guidelines that are given by the NAEYC for the children development in effective. These guidelines are provided for the capable children. family relationships are play important role in effective development of children.

Love and care are very important for the effective development of children. love and effective help to provide the social, discipline, values and ethics development in the effective development. Unconditional love and care are helping to promote the child development. Love increase the respect and acceptance between the children. love and effective are related with the inner feeling and inner feeling are more important for effective development as compare to the outer feelings. Children become independent when they get support and trust from the adults. Young children are shoe their love and affection by lap sitting, hugs and kiss.

Discipline is very important for effective development because in discipline children are learn about the perform actions with the restrictions. The discipline is also defined as the guidelines that distinguish between positive and negative techniques. Inhibited and directive techniques are used for the effective guidance and discipline. Inhibited techniques are based on the psychological and power assertive to stop the unacceptable activities of children. power assertive is related with the physical punishment and psychological is related with the shaming. Directive techniques are used for reinforcement and behaviorist. In the directive techniques children are seeing the adults to perform some activities and children are also trying to perform same activities. Therefor adults are always performed right and good actions that influence the behavior of children.

Adults have responsibility to encourage children about the democracy and morale autonomy. Teachers and adults are using the different techniques for the teaching their children about the democracy, moral development and nonviolence. Parents and adults make sure that they are not performing the violence and nondemocratic activities in front of children because these activities impact the effective development. The democratic development of children is increased by encourage children to take part in democratic activities and promote the power. We can teach children about the freedom and take responsibility because democracy involved with the freedom and responsibility. The nonviolence behavior of children is promoted by creating the trustworthy relations so that children feel comfortable and share any problem with adults. Morale development of children is increased by the morale of family and society because children are adopting the moral values from the adults.

Some other techniques that are helping children in the effective development are coaching, reward, reshaping and modelling. During the crisis children are face the anxiety, fear and stress and adults can help children to recover from the crisis. adults are observing the behavior of children and if they see that children are facing the crisis then they help them with the love and affection. In the crisis always listen the problems of children and provide them effective solution.

Chapter 14: Preschool to primary: the gap into the primary grade

This chapter described the continuous education development of the children and its important. Kindergarten or preschool are the first step for the educational development. Preschool to primary is the continuous period of the development and it is very important. Preschool to primary is very important for the smooth and flexible transition from one level to next level. In the preschool children are familiar with the education system and are ready to adopt the educational development. Preschool is the building bridge of the education development. In the preschool children are learn from the games such as use concrete material to abstract the symbols and children are play with animals’ toys and learn names of different animals.

The continuity of educational system helps to demonstrate the success. Preschool, kindergarten and primary are different period because in different periods children learn different things. Developmentally appropriate practices are helping to achieve the continuity education system for children. Readiness is defined as the end point of the existing level and children are ready to enter into the next level. The readiness contains the five domains such as physical and motor development, emotional development, learning approaches, language development and cognition development. According to the readiness children are enter into next development when they are achieving previous development successfully.

Children assessments are related with the child development and growth. The children assessment help to identify the development level of the children. Appropriate assessment development helps to identify the misuse of the readiness and eliminate the misuse. This approach helps in the authentic evaluation which determine the educational achievement of the children. Authentic evaluation is related with the direct evaluation, performance evaluation and alternative evaluation. This helps to identify the occurring learning experience of the children. children assessment is used to set the goals of education such as development, learning, health growth and academic development of children.

The main skills of the children that are helps children in their future are creative thinking and problem solving. In the future technology is changes and which promotes the demands of the people. children are needing to take independent decision and increase tehri curiosity and innovation. Children are more concern with the achievements and adjustments can get the successful future. Children are more focus on their achievements and innovation. The culture is also affecting the future of the children because culture helps to promotes the ethics, moral and values at workplace. Many factors can affect the achievements and adjustments such as family, neighborhood and society.

Parents education level and society level effect the education development of children and school success of children. quality educational programs are helps to remove the problems in the educational system. cross culture comparison helps to increase the interest of children in the development researches. When the children are reaching at the primary education then they get the second and foundational level of the education system. at this level children are promoting their knowledge about the different things. In the primary grade’s children are more learn about the discipline, democracy and nonviolence.

Chapter 15: Primary Grade child development

This chapter described the physical, health and motor development are interrelated developments. In the primary grade the body of the children is more growing and developing tehri muscles. The weight and height of the children is increased during the primary grade. In the primary grade the health of the children is also growing, and it cause some disease also therefor parents and teachers are more aware with the health of the children during the primary grade. In the primary grade proper and healthy nutrition are very important for the growth and development of children. good diet and physical exercise are helps children in the energy balance. Safety and injury are also occurred in the primary grade because in primary grades children are perform grow motor skills.

In the gross motor development children are learning to play the outdoor games such as sliding, jumping and climbing. The gross motor development in primary grade is increased in the youth games and recess because in primary grades children are not allowed to play games during the education time. It is the responsibility of parents and teachers that they encourage children for playing outdoor games and perform exercise that are helping to maintain the fitness of children. football, basketball and other gamer are help in the gross motor development. In the primary grade period the fine motor skills are developed by writing and drawing. In the primary grade children are get proper time for writing and drawing.

In the primary development children are more able to handle the complex cognition problems. Children get the concrete experience. The development of fine motor skills is occurred in the classroom and children are known about the importance of the communication and hand writing. In the primary grade children are learn different methods of hand writing such as simple word writing and cursive word writing. In the primary school children are get more opportunities for the development of fine motor skills. In the fine motor children are draw different things such as they draw images of animals, birds and humans. In the primary school children are learn proper use of symbol, letters and numbers.

Technology is also helpful for the development in primary grades because it provides the many tools for increasing the learning of children. television and computer are play important role in the development of the children same as the parents and teachers. By using the technology children are learn new methods of learning and increase their skills. Children are developing their writing and communication method by using the technology. But sometime technology in primary grade increase some problems such as time waste, cyber bullying and costly. It is very important that parents make sure that children are use technology for the educational purpose only and they are not spent long time of the technology by playing games and chatting with friends.

The primary period is the best period for the development of self-sensitivity and self-interest. In the primary grade the social, emotional, cognition and physical development are increased collectively and interrelated with each other. In the primary period children are more aware with their responsibilities and interests. In the primary period the effective development is increased by the peer relations which promotes the self-esteem. In the primary period children are more create peer relations that helps to promotes the learning and social skills of children. children give more value to friendship which promotes the emotional development.

In the primary period children are more attached with the family and friends therefor they are more stresses about their education, family problems, friends’ pressure and conflicts in school. Children feel worthy, happy, satisfied and powerful with tehri peers and family. Parents and teacher help children to make the discipline about the health such as prepare proper time table for eating food, exercise, study, sleep and play. This can help children in the physical development of children in primary period. The sociocultural effect the development of the children in the primary period because social culture influences the behavior of the children.



Charlesworth, R. (2004). Understanding child development: For adults who work with young

children. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.