Annotated Bibliography: LGBT Violence

Newspaper (from website):

Brooke J. (1998, October 13). Gay man dies from attack, fanning outrage and debate. The New York Times, retrieved from

This newspaper is a New York Times article from October 13, 1998 written by James Brooke. It talks about the murder of Matthew Shepard, a university student because he was homosexual. The article mentions that thousands of people gathered for vigils nationwide, all calling for justice and change about hate-crimes. Brooke also talks about the perpetrators, Aaron McKinney and Russel Henderson, being indicted for murder and their upcoming trials during that time. Lastly, the article criticizes states that do not have hate crime legislation and even mentions a quote from former President Bill Clinton calling for change.

This newspaper is a true primary source from the New York Times. For it to be published just days after the innocent gives a realistic approach I want in my presentation. It gives my audience the information I want to relay about the Matthew Shepard case and sets a basis for talking about The Laramie Project and how it developed popularity. The source is clear and component because it tells of the story in a clear manner while making it easy for audiences to read. It has an objective to educate audiences about the crime and the after effects. I plan on using this in the context section for the Laramie project because it’s important for my audiences to get a firsthand account on this situation and keep them engaged.


  1. Hicks, personal communication, November 1, 2016.

This was an interview I facilitated with Heather Hicks, the director for this year’s production of The Laramie Project at George Mason University. We discussed why she put on the production, as well as artistic aspects of the show. We also talked about how she wanted the audience to get the hope out of Matthews story rather than just expressing how awful the crime was. Her overall goal was to get the audience to act or speak out against hate crimes.

The interview I had with Heather provides a strong expert testimony into my presentation. She had spent many years studying the Laramie Project before the actual presentation so that her artistic ideas were clear and effective. She considered the historical significance and the effects after to help influence her direction of the show. Her interview gave me direct insight about the show from a different perspective. She is a clear source because she expressed in high detail the importance of the show and what message it brings out to her. The conversation with her will help me show the audience the effects of the show from a person who is highly qualified to discuss it.


Kaufman, M., & Tectonic Theater Project. (2001). The Laramie project. New York: Vintage Books.

This book is the play of the Laramie Project, written by Moses Kaufman and members of the Tectonic Theater Project. The play sets their basis around the Murder of Matthew Shepard, A university student who was killed because he was homosexual.  The play takes actual interviews the company conducted in Laramie, Wyoming. Over a year and a half, they come out with over 200 interviews for their show to reside around. They play shows the actual interviews as well as the crime against Matthew Shepard, making for a powerful and moving piece.

The play itself is a strong source when presenting this topic. Since I was already in this performance, I had a good handle on how the show should be run. But I read it again to summarize the story to my audience. It’s important because it shows the audience the actual text revolving the incident. The play has a clear objective to inspire and move audiences, which is why I am discussing this topic. The Laramie Project gives actual quotes from people in the town after the incident which shows the audience the reality of what happened. I will provide the story’s summary in the first main point establish historical significance of the incident that occurred.


Imam, J. (2015, May). Town where Matthew Shepard was killed passes LGBT law 17 years later. Retrieved from

This is a CNN article written by Jareen Imam, a social discovery producer for the news website. She reports on the Laramie Non-discrimination Ordinance bill that was passed in Laramie, Wyoming on May 13, 2015, 17 years after the murder of Matthew Shepard. The bill bans discrimination through workplaces or services within the town. She provides quotes from Jeran Artery, the chairman of equality in Wyoming and Judy Shepard, the mother of Matthew Shepard both expressing joy and excitement for this bill to be passed.

This article on the CNN websites provides a strong example to my third main point of certain legislation that was enacted after the Matthew Shepard incident and play. Its objective in 2015 was to inform audiences about the bill being passed and how important it was to other people. It is competent to readers because the reporter provides knowledgeable details about this historic event and it is easy to read for young adults to the elderly. It will show my audience specific change that was put forth even years after the play was established.

Scholarly Journal:

Iverson, S., & Seher, C. (2014). Using theatre to change attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual students. Journal of LGBT Youth, 11, 40-61. doi: 10.1300/J236v11n03_07

This scholarly journal was written by Dr. Anne Mulvey and Dr. Charlotte Mandell. The journal was published on October 21, 2008 and talks about a production of the Laramie Project at Northeastern Urban University and the journal looks into why the Laramie Project was so popular at that school. To present their evidence they asked audience members why they went to see the show and recorded their reactions after the show. The researchers concluded that people saw the show because so many people could relate to it. They also concluded that people after the show were motived to change and act on hate crimes that members of the LGBT community goes through every day.

This scholarly journal gives direct support to my second main point of audience’s reactions of The Laramie Project. The source has an objective to report these audience reactions and provides clear evidence as to why this show is so popular at this university. I can use this journal to my advantage by showing the audience concrete evidence that this show has potential to initiate change. Since the source is being provided by knowledgeable people with their doctorate degree, it shows my audience that these people are reliable source and have a lot of knowledge in their respected fields.