Soc 100 Exam 2 Part e

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In his study of the Saints and the Roughnecks, William Chambliss concluded that a key factor in the varying treatment by the criminal justice system of the two groups was their differing:

political views.
social class positions.


Dave, the president of a small corporation, has a wild weekend. He spends a night with a prostitute, gambles illegally, drinks excessively, and uses illegal drugs. Some would suggest he has committed various

index crimes
white collar crimes
sexual crimes
victimless crimes


Differential justice refers to

The different treatment of criminals according to age category
The advantage minorities have in the criminal justice system
all of the above
The way social control is exercised over different groups


Question 16

According to Durkheim, organic solidarity describes

simple societies with a minimal division of labor
complex societies characterized by mutual interdependence
both of the above
neither of the above


Which of the following characteristics of bureaucracy refers to the power structure in organizations or institutions?

hierarchy of authority
employment based on technical qualifications
written rules and regulations
division of labor


A measure of social class that is based on income, education, occupation, and related variables is referred to as

socioeconomic status


The super-rich in the United States were able to accumulate vast amounts of wealth partly because globalization enabled them to:

produce their products in one place
make investments locally
exploit low-wage labor in other countries
sell products to consumers in the United States



Which of the following terms is used by sociologists to refer to a structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society?

social structure


Which of the following describes a caste stratification system?

Closed system based on hereditary religious rank that remains fixed and immobile
Closed system where some people are owned by others
Open system where social rank depends primarily on economic position
Closed system where most people are peasants or nobles (royalty)


What is absolute poverty?

The lack of basic necessities, such as food, shelter, clothing, and medical care.
Having to draw welfare and food stamps, in addition to working for minimum wage.
Living paycheck to paycheck in a society where there is an abundance of resources.
Being able to pay the bills but not having enough to afford the luxuries of life.


Socially defined expectations of a person in a given social position are referred to as

status positions
master status
social roles
markers of inequality


Conflict between in-groups and out-groups can lead to violence.




Which of the following would be an example of why a person would want to be part of a secondary group?

to accomplish a specific goal, such as graduating from college
to have a sense of closeness and camaraderie
to associate with people who care about the person and his or her future
to form close bonds and ties with everyone in the group


Postindustrial societies are primarily concerned with

the processing and control of information.
providing services rather than manufacturing goods.
both answers are true
neither answer is true


In the six-class model sociologists commonly use to describe the U.S. class system, which social class contains the smallest portion of the population?

working class
upper class
middle class


Which theory emphasizes that deviant behavior is learned through social interactions with other deviants?

control theory
cultural transmission
labeling theory
functionalist theory


What racial group is the most overrepresented in the U.S. prison system?



George Ritzer’s term “the irrationality of rationality” refers to

negative outcomes of McDonaldization for humans and the planet
The process of McDonaldization spreading across the world
McDonaldization causing mental illness in some individuals
positive outcomes of McDonaldization for humans and the planet



An acheived social status is

A status that is assigned to an individual regardless of their unique talents or characteristics.
A status that dominates how people interact with an individual in a particular setting.
A status that is within our power to change.
A status that applies to only one social situation.



Which theory argues that community breakdown causes increased crime?

cultural transmission
labeling theory
control theory
social disorganization theory