SOC 100 Exam 2 Part 3

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An industrial society’s economy is largely based on

manufacturing and industry
information exchange and service jobs
offshoring, downsizing, and the growth of multinational corporations
all of the above


According to George Ritzer, calculability refers to

replacing human labor with machines
quantity over quality
uniformity of the product
streamlining the production process


The scientific management approach to bureaucratic organizations

measures human dissatisfaction with organizational climate
measures all aspects of the work process to eliminate inefficiencies
emphasizes quantity over quality
emphasizes people, communication, and participation


The process by which the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control shape organization and decision making is called

The Iron Law of Oligarchy
The Hierarchy of Authority
Goal Displacement


An ascribed social status is

A status that dominates how people interact with an individual in a particular setting.
A status that is assigned to an individual regardless of their unique talents or characteristics.
A status that is within our power to change.
A status that applies to only one social situation.


Which stage of the social construction of reality theory argues that ways of life have become solidified to the point where they seem “real” and therefore outside human creation?




Certain index crime rates have decreased since 2004 in the U.S. What reason did we discuss in class?

technological innovations such as surveillance cameras and burglar alarms
increase in police budgets to provide the latest crime fighting equipment
aging population
all of the above


A college student is caught cheating on an exam and is brought before a college-wide disciplinary committee, which decides to expel the student from the school. The committee’s action is an example of

positive sanctions
labeling theory
formal social control
informal social control


Which of the following is the best example of a crime that is also a low-consensus norm in the United States today?

underage drinking
cocaine use


Which of the following is the BEST example of primary deviance?

Taylor gets court fines and probation for shoplifting
Sara is caught stealing a car and arrested
Tamara goes to jail for forging checks
Brad runs naked across campus



According to Durkheim’s theory of crime and deviance

crime and deviance are universal in all societies
crime and deviance are defined by societies
crime and deviance are functional for societies
all of the above



Which of the following sanctions reflects informal social control?

Miguel having to appear in court for driving under the influence of alcohol.
Sammie getting a ticket for jaywalking.
Tony being arrested for possession of marijuana.
Maria laughing at Jesse because she likes opera.



Which of the following describes a class stratification system?

Closed system where most people are peasants or nobles (royalty)
Closed system where some people are owned by others
Open system where social rank depends primarily on economic position
Closed system based on hereditary religious rank that remains fixed and immobile


What is the definition of Marx’s concept of class consciousness?

Attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
Set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps maintain status quo
Awareness by members of a class of their common interests and the need for collective political action to bring about change
All of the above

The federal calculation of the poverty line in the U.S. was created in which decade?



According to Weber, social class position affects your

life chances
social mobility


According to the video on wealth distribution in the U.S., which of the following statements is true?

When surveyed, most Americans accurately described the country’s distribution of income and wealth.
Ideally, 9 out of 10 Americans surveyed believe the wealth distribution should be steeper than it currently is.
Although the wealth is distributed unevenly among the five 20 percent quintiles in the U.S., the differences are minimal.
The richest 1 percent own more of the nation’s wealth than 90 percent of Americans think the top 20 percent should have.


While income in the United States continues to be unevenly distributed, the degree of income inequality has declined significantly since 1970.




Which of the following is NOT a reason for the shrinking middle class?

increase in nonunion workplaces
the rise of heavy industry
outsourcing of industrial jobs globally
disappearing opportunities for people with little education


Which theory focuses on why certain people are defined as deviant while others are not?

cultural transmission
labeling theory
control theory
social disorganization theory


Beliefs can never be considered deviant.




What is the main purpose of victimization surveys?

To confirm the findings of the FBI Uniform Crime Reports.
To provide evidence in court about crimes that have not been prosecuted.
To discredit false accusations from actual crimes.
To provide more information about crime rates since some crimes are significantly underreported.


Which of the following does Weber consider a negative possible outcome of written rules and regulations?

abuse of power
goal displacement


Which of the following does Weber consider a negative possible outcome of the division of labor?

goal displacement
abuse of power


According to Durkheim, mechanical solidarity describes

simple societies with a minimal division of labor
complex societies characterized by mutual interdependence
both of the above
neither of the above