SOC 100 Exam 2 Part 2

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Individuals can hold multiple social statuses at once.




A young woman walks into her women’s studies class, and looks at the person sitting to her left. He is the only male in the class. He is about 20 years old, wears a wedding ring, and carries a bag with a tennis racquet. Which of his characteristics is most likely his master status in the context of this class?

his interest in tennis
his age
his sex/gender
his marital status


Which of the following is an ascribed social status?

college student


Jamal learns that his wife wants a divorce. Jamal is likely to experience

role exit
role strain
role change
role conflict


The social construction of reality means that individuals can alter their own social reality any way they like.






Elaine is a clinical sociologist who practices marriage and family therapy. She is also a college professor. One of her current students asks her if she can make an appointment for a therapy session. Elaine tells the student that she will refer her to a colleague because she feels that holding therapy sessions with a student might create

role conflict
role strain
role exit
status displacement

What is Berger and Luckmann’s main thesis in their social construction of reality theory?


Society becomes a strong, real force that is out of human control.
Once institutionalization has occurred, society cannot be changed.
Social reality comes from a source external to humans.
Humans collectively create, maintain, and change social reality.



Which of the following refers to our tendency to establish close social networks with others similar to us?

social cluster


According to Berger and Luckmann, the first stage in the social construction of reality is




Arrive to class on time, raise your hand before speaking, turn in assignments on time—these expectations are part of the __________ of students.

status marker
social role


According to the class video, what is an internet “filter bubble”?

It refers to the negative psychological effects of social media.
It refers to the computer algorithms that select what we see and what we don’t see.
It refers to the social isolation older people experience when they can’t use the new technology.
all of the above


Which of the following is an ascribed social status?

a major league baseball player
a corporation president
a South African
all of the above


A semester long college class is an example of

primary group

ascribed group

secondary group

multipurpose group


A master social status is

A status that is within our power to change.
A status that is assigned to an individual regardless of their unique talents or characteristics.
A status that dominates how people interact with an individual in a particular setting.
A status that applies to only one social situation.



According to Bourdieu, what is cultural capital?

The sum total of our social networks, both strong and weak, which can provide us with opportunities.
Yearly income plus wealth minus debt.
The combination of our income, wealth, status, education, occupation, and other SES variables.
Our tastes, knowledge, language, and ways of thinking that we exchange in interaction with others.



According to the graph shown in class, which is the only country with higher rates of children in poverty than the United States?



What is the definition of Marx’s concept of false consciousness?

Attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
Set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps maintain status quo
Awareness by members of a class of their common interests and the need for collective political action to bring about change
All of the above


In order to understand an individual’s position in the U.S. social class hierarchy, you need to

Measure their income and their wealth.
Record their level of education.
Determine their occupation.
All of the above.


What is meant by the phrase feminization of poverty?

the fact that women are more likely not to marry until they find a rich man
the fact that there has been an increase in the proportion of poor who are women
the notion that women are not as likely to pursue education or other skill development and end up in lower-paying jobs
the idea that women do not work as hard as men and are therefore more likely to be poor


Which of the following is NOT an example of relative poverty?

Being able to pay the bills but not having enough to afford the luxuries of life.
Having to draw welfare and food stamps, in addition to working for minimum wage.
Living paycheck to paycheck in a society where there is an abundance of resources.
The lack of basic necessities, such as food, shelter, clothing, and medical care.


Which of the following describes a slavery stratification system?

Closed system where most people are peasants or nobles (royalty)
Closed system where some people are owned by others
Open system where social rank depends primarily on economic position
Closed system based on hereditary religious rank that remains fixed and immobile


According to lecture, studies and experiments have shown that a full-time, minimum wage job is sufficient for a single person to meet their daily needs.




Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the status of America’s middle class?

Middle class incomes have stagnated since the 1970s, even when factoring in inflation.
Globalization and the rise of multinational corporations have resulted in the rapid growth of the middle class.
Due to the increase in labor union memberships, and the rise of manufacturing industry, the middle class is prospering.
Middle class incomes are increasing rapidly, leading to more upward social mobility.


The Iron Law of Oligarchy refers to the tendency of

bureaucracies becoming inefficient
individuals getting caught in “red tape” in a bureaucracy
organizations to develop into a bureaucracy ruled by an elite few
unintended irrational outcomes of bureaucratization


According to George Ritzer, control refers to

streamlining the production process
replacing human labor with machines
quantity over quality
uniformity of the product

Which of the following characteristics of bureaucracy refers to occupational specialization?

hierarchy of authority
written rules and regulations
division of labor
employment based on technical qualifications