SOC 100 Exam 2 Part 1

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The human relations approach to bureaucratic organizations

measures all aspects of the work process to eliminate inefficiencies
emphasizes people, communication, and participation
measures human dissatisfaction with organizational climate
emphasizes quantity over quality


Which of the following is true about bureaucratization? 

It is the process by which an institution increasingly relies on technical-rational decision making in the pursuit of efficiency.
It is the process through which an organization identifies an entirely new objective because its traditional goals have been either realized or denied.
It is the process of rewarding individuals based on their unique talents.
It is an element or process of society that may disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability.



The difficulty that arises when the same social status imposes conflicting demands and expectations is known as

role strain
role conflict
role exit


According to George Ritzer, efficiency refers to

streamlining the production process
quantity over quality
replacing human labor with machines
uniformity of the product

According to George Ritzer, predictability refers to

replacing human labor with machines
quantity over quality
streamlining the production process
uniformity of the product


A corporate vice president is convicted of attempting to bribe a presidential aide. This type of crime is called 

professional crime.
organized crime.
index crime.
white-collar crime.


Which of the following does Weber consider a negative possible outcome of the hierarchy of authority?

abuse of power
goal displacement



Whether something is considered deviant or not is up to the individual.




Angel is a heavy drinker, and many of his friends label him an alcoholic. This is an example of

simple deviance
secondary deviance
primary deviance
contextual deviance


Which of the following is true about Émile Durkheim’s view of deviance? 

There is nothing inherently deviant or criminal in any act; the key is how society defines the act.
Labeling an individual is the most crucial stage in that person becoming a deviant.
People accept or reject the goals of a society and/or the socially approved means to fulfill their aspirations.
All of the above

Of the following, which is NOT included on the FBI’s list of index crimes in the U.S.?

larceny theft
corporate crimes
forcible rape


Which nation has the highest incarceration rate?

United States


According to Robert Merton’s strain (anomie) theory of deviance, an innovator is an individual who has 

abandoned the goal of material success and become compulsively committed to the institutional means.
withdrawn from both the goals and means of society.
accepted the goals of society, but rejects the legitimate means of attaining those goals.
none of the above


All crimes are deviant, and all deviance is crime.




Which of the following statements is true relative to stigma and deviance in the United States? 

A person need not actually engage in a deviant behavior to be stigmatized.
People may be stigmatized for deviant behaviors in which they no longer engage.
Both answers are correct.
Neither answer is correct.


Which of the following is most likely to be considered a high-consensus crime in the U.S.?

underage drinking
marijuana possession
sexual assault


What are the conceptual differences between deviance and crime? Is all crime deviant?

And is all deviance crime? Define, explain, and provide examples.

The fundamental difference between deviance and crime is what both of them violate. Deviance behavior is what violates the norms and rules of a society. Violating these norms and rules may not be punishable by the law of the land. For example picking your nose in public is classified as a deviant behavior. On the other hand, Crime is a form of a behavior that is deviant from the norms and rules of a society but it is also against the formal criminal law of the land. In other words, a violation of a specific norm that are regarded as a law (Deviance and Social Control, 2018).  Rape, murder and robbery etc. are examples of a crime.

Not all crimes are deviant when you refer to specific communities as a part of a larger society. For example polygamy is not considered deviant among Muslim minority in the US but it is not recognized as legal by the US law. So, something that is considered a norm among Muslims is considered a crime by the US law. The same goes for deviance being a crime. Not all deviance is a crime. For example, picking you nose in public is deviant as it is against the norms of the society but it is not a deviant of a severe sort and is not categorized as a crime.


Deviance and Social Control. (2018). Retrieved from