SOC 100 Exam 03

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One way to ensure that a sample is representative of the broader population from which it is taken is to ensure that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected in the sample.

True

False

A sociologist downloads a pre-existing database from the U.S. Department of Justice website, and then proceeds to run statistical tests and analyze the data. This is an example of what type of research method?

 

Participant observation.
Laboratory experiment.
Content analysis.
Secondary analysis.

 

Surveys most often represent which kind of research, which collects and reports data primarily in numerical form?

quantitative
descriptive
ethnographic
qualitative

 

A sociologist attends meetings at all the schools and churches in his community over several years, and meets as many residents as he can for the purpose of exploring all facets of the community’s social life. He then compiles a detailed description of the community. He is conducting a(n) …

content analysis
ethnography
survey
experiment

 

In sociology and other sciences, a “literature review” is….

the careful creation of a research question or hypothesis.
a summary of relevant research studies done in the past.
Both answers are true.
Neither answer is true.

 

To conduct a cross-cultural study of job discrimination against women, a sociologist asks 75 women between the ages of 20 and 40 in an American city, and 75 women in the same age group in a Canadian city, to fill out a questionnaire. This study would be classified as…

a survey.
a secondary analysis.
a content analysis.
an experiment.

 

A correlation is

a speculative statement about the relationship between two variables.
a relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other.
the extent to which a measure provides consistent results.
the transformation of an abstract concept into indicators that are observable and measurable.

 

 

A correlation between two variables always indicates causality.

True

False

 

Valid research measures

provide consistent results.
are always independent, rather than dependent, variables.
accurately reflect the phenomenon under study.
are ethical standards that are followed by sociologists.

 

An artificially created situation that allows a researcher to manipulate variables is known as a(n)

survey
secondary analysis
experiment
observation

 

Folkways can be defined as

Generally understood norms that are not written down in law or policy
Norms that have been written down and specify punishments for violators
Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society
Norms governing everyday behavior

 

Formal norms can be defined as

 

Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society
Generally understood norms that are not written down in law or policy
Norms governing everyday behavior
Norms that have been written down and specify punishments for violators

 

Mores can be defined as

Generally understood norms that are not written down in law or policy
Norms governing everyday behavior
Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society
Norms that have been written down and specify punishments for violators

Which of the following concepts describes viewing and judging people’s behavior from the perspective of their (the people’s) culture?

ethnocentrism.
cultural relativism.
cultural lag.
cultural integration.

 

Which of the following is true about the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?

It argues that language is biologically determined.
It argues that thought precedes language.
It argues that the primary role of language is to describe reality.
It argues that language shapes what we perceive and think.

 

Which of the following is a good example of cultural lag?

Confusion about the “rules” for smart phone use in public
Older people feeling left behind or incompetent with new technologies
Consumers feeling confused when asked to order from a screen instead of a person
All of these

 

Yang is researching how many groups that live in Spain seem to have their own sets of norms and values that are at times different from mainstream Spanish norms and values. Which sociological concept best describes what he is studying?

Countercultures
Argot
Societies
Subcultures

 

English-speaking people in the United States commonly use words whose origins are from various African, Asian, and non-English-speaking European cultures. This is an example of

nonmaterial culture.
cultural shock.
cultural diffusion
cultural relativity.

 

Shannon notes that women in some cultures voluntarily alter their bodies with sometimes painful piercings that look weird from the point of view of her culture. She takes from this that women in those cultures must be horribly oppressed compared with women in her own culture. Shannon’s position might be best interpreted as:

Cultural relativism
Historical materialism
Ethnocentrism
Social psychological

Durkheim’s fatalistic form of suicide occurs…

When there is too much social integration.
When there is too much social regulation.
When there is too little social regulation.
When there is too little social integration.

Juan is on his first date with Maria, whom he really likes. He tries to act in a manner that will cause her to like him, too, and to want to go out with him again. According to Goffman, this is an example of…

props
performance team
impression management
back stage

 

One way to develop a sociological imagination is to view your own society

as an outsider.
from the perspective of personal experience.
as an insider.
from the perspective of cultural biases.

 

According to Marx, economic inequality is an inherent or inevitable part of capitalism, and cannot be avoided without changing the entire economic system.

True

False

 

Which of the following historical happening best exemplifies Durkheim’s concept of anomic suicide?

Japanese Kamikaze pilots attacking Pearl Harbor.
The massive killing of Jewish people during the Holocaust.
The U.S. stock market crash of 1929 that led to the great depression.
The Islamic suicide bombers that flew their planes into buildings on 9/11.

 

The conflict and functionalist theories are considered _______ perspectives.

matzo
macro
micro
mezzo

 

The fact that sociology researchers have found little difference between the two sexes in terms of talkativeness is an example of why the systematic analysis of facts practiced by sociologists is generally the same as common sense knowledge.

True

False

 

Durkheim’s altruistic form of suicide occurs…

When there is too much social integration.
When there is too little social regulation.
When there is too much social regulation.
When there is too little social integration

 

What does Weber mean by his concept of “party” when referring to social inequality?

Income, wealth, and economic class position.
Professional or political organizations one belongs to.
Prestige and esteem, usually attached to an occupation and/or level of education.
What most college students do on weekends, regardless of social status.

Which sociological perspective would suggest that if an aspect of social life does not contribute to a society’s stability, then it does not serve a useful purpose?

conflict perspective
functionalist perspective
interactionist perspective
None of the answers is correct.

 

Weber argued that inequality could be better understood by considering people’s…

personal belief systems.
position as owners or workers.
commitment to bureaucracy.
class, status, and party.

 

Which sociological perspective would argue that public punishments reinforce the social order?

interactionist perspective
conflict perspective
functionalist perspective
feminist perspective

 

The activity theory of aging argues that

those elderly people who remain active and socially involved will be best adjusted
society and the aging individual should mutually sever many of their relationships
the elderly should be revered as wise ancestors whose knowledge is important for society
the elderly are best served by remaining engaged in the same kinds of activities and roles that defined their earlier lives

 

Humans cannot be socialized without:

two parents: a mother and a father
educated parents who are familiar with theories of child psychology
proper medical treatment
regular social interaction with others

 

A woman who was socialized from infancy to become a wife and mother settles comfortably into being a homemaker in her twenties and early thirties. However, her husband dies suddenly, and she finds that she must enter the paid labor force in order to support herself and her two children. This woman will most likely have to undergo a process of

anticipatory socialization.
resocialization.
socialization.
reverse socialization.

 

The disengagement theory of aging argues that

those elderly people who remain active and socially involved will be best adjusted
society and the aging individual should mutually sever many of their relationships
the elderly should be revered as wise ancestors whose knowledge is important for society
the elderly are best served by remaining engaged in the same kinds of activities and roles that defined their earlier lives

 

Allison is playing in a high school field hockey game and passes the ball to Erika, who appears to have a scoring opportunity. Allison’s pass suggests that she is aware of her role as a member of a team and that she is now in which stage of development, according to George Herbert Mead?

the play stage
the preparatory stage
the game stage
the imitative stage

 

Which of the following is true about Cooley’s theory of the looking-glass self?

It describes the interaction between the ‘I’ and the ‘Me.’
It argues that personality is biologically determined.
It is a theory that we become who we are based on how we imagine others see and judge us.
All of the answers are correct.

 

Which of the following best summarizes how disengagement theory views the elderly?

As people age, they no longer want to participate fully in society.
As people age, they need to be removed from their traditional roles to free up those roles for the younger generation.
As people age, they are more interested in watching TV than interacting with others.
As people age, they are given more respect than the younger generation.

 

According to early social psychologists, the acquisition of language through interaction is the most important vehicle for successful human socialization.

True

False

 

All social science theories of child socialization emphasize:

that social isolation does not influence socialization
the significance of brain development
the role of genetics
the importance of human contact

 

When discussing human socialization, “nature” refers to

Human biology, genetics, and physiology that shapes us as individuals
The social environment we grow up in that shapes us as individuals
Interaction with animals, and how this shapes us as individuals
All of the above

 

A young girl decides that she wants to become an Olympic swimmer. She takes swimming lessons, joins her school’s swimming team, reads magazine articles about champion swimmers, and goes to swim meets at a nearby college. This is an example of

desocialization.
reverse socialization.
anticipatory socialization.
resocialization.