Psychology Exam


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Question 1

A way to distinguish Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) from Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) is:

 

Individuals with NPD are more paranoid than individuals with HPD

 

Individuals with HPD are willing to be seen as fragile or dependent to get attention, whereas those with NPD need to be seen as superior to others

 

Individuals with HPD are more likely to seek attention in subtle and less public attempts

 

HPD is distinguished by self-destructiveness and identity disturbance as compared to NPD who are less so

 

2 points

Question 2

The best definition for compulsions is:

 

Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value, as a result of strong perceived need to save the items and the distress associated with discarding them

 

  Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the individual feels driven to perform in response to rules that must be applied rigidly

 

Preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance that are not observable or appear only slight to others

 

Recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are experiences, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and unwanted, and tat in most individuals cause marked anxiety and distress

 

2 points


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Question 3

Which of the following is a risk factor for developing borderline personality disorder?

 

None of the available choices

 

Being female

 

Childhood history of abuse, neglect

 

Both of the available choices

2 points

Question 4

Which of the following diagnosis fits this description: Excessive anxiety and worry, occurring more days than not for at least 6 months, about a number of events or activities.

 

Specific phobia

 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

 

Agoraphobia

 

Social Anxiety Disorder

 

2 points

Question 5

Which of the following diagnosis fits this description: Marked fear or anxiety about a specific object or situation (e. g., flying, heights, animals, receiving an injection, seeing blood).

 

Agoraphobia

 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

 

Specific phobia

 

Social Anxiety Disorder

 

2 points

Question 6

Which of the following statement is NOT true about Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)?

 

APD is more common among males than females

 

None of the available choices

 

There is a higher rate of APD among the criminal population

 

Individuals must demonstrate that the characteristics/symptoms did not emerge until after the age of 18

 

2 points

Question 7

What is the best definition of anhedonia?

 

Fixed beliefs that are not amendable to change in light of conflicting evidence
A marked decrease in reactivity to the environment
Perception-like experiences that occur without an external stimulus
Decreased ability to experience pleasure from positive stimuli or a degradation in the recollection of pleasure previously experienced

 

2 points

Question 8

Which of the following statements is NOT true about obsessive-compulsive personality disorder?

 

There must be the presence of obsessions and compulsions to be diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

 

Is not flexible, open, or efficient in a variety of contexts

 

There is a pervasive pattern of preoccupation of orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control

 

Can be seen as rigid, overconscientious, or miserly

 

2 points

Question 9

One of the key features of personality disorders in general is that:

 

Patterns and symptoms are consistent with the expectations and norms of the culture

 

Patterns and symptoms vary with context

 

All of the disorders include mood instability as a hallmark characteristic

 

Patterns and symptoms are stable over time

 

2 points

Question 10

Which of the following would NOT be an example of a positive symptom in schizophrenia?

 

Alogia

 

Hallucinations

 

Delusions

 

Thought disorders

 

2 points

Question 11

Which of the following is TRUE for anxiety disorders and comorbidity:

 

It is often comorbid with other anxiety disorders

 

It is often comorbid with depression

 

All of the available options

 

It is often comorbid with substance-related disorders

 

2 points

Question 12

Which of the following statement is MOST TRUE about interventions with people with schizophrenia?

 

Interventions have not been shown to be effective with positive symptoms

 

There is a limited amount of empirical support that interventions for managing the symptoms of schizophrenia are effective

 

Research has shown that family involvement tends to agitate the clients

 

Medications can cure someone of the disorder

 

2 points

Question 13

PTSD and Acute Stress disorder differ from adjustment disorders in which of the following ways:

 

Adjustment disorders are ruled out if the person has ever experienced a panic attack

 

Adjustment disorders have a different symptoms profile and do not share the same collection of symptoms as the other two

 

In adjustment disorders, the stressor can be of any severity rather than the type required by acute stress disorder and PTSD

 

Adjustment disorders last only 2-4 weeks

 

2 points

Question 14

The best definition for obsessions is:

 

Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the individual feels driven to perform in response to rules that must be applied rigidly

 

Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value, as a result of strong perceived need to save the items and the distress associated with discarding them
Preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance that are not observable or appear only slight to others
Recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and unwanted, and that in most individuals cause marked anxiety and distress

 

2 points

Question 15

Which of the following statements is MOST TRUE about the origins of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)?

 

Most researchers agree that the combination of biological and environmental factors influence the developed of BPD

 

Children with challenging temperaments and are difficult to soothe

 

Most researchers agree that biological influences cause BPD

 

Children who experience trauma will develop BPD

 

2 points

Question 16

Which of the following is NOT an essential feature of PTSD?

 

Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event(s)

 

Fantasized about or imagined exposure to actual or threatened death

 

Marked alternatives in arousal and reactivity associated with the traumatic event(s)

 

Recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories of the traumatic event(s)

 

2 points

Question 17

In order to diagnosis someone with schizophrenia, which criteria MUST be met?

 

There must be negative symptoms present

 

They have to demonstrated continuous symptoms for a minimum of 3 months

 

They must have at least one of the following symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech

 

They have a history of substance abuse used to manage symptoms

 

2 points

Question 18

Cluster A personality disorders include:

 

Schizoid Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, and Dependent-Personality Disorder

 

Antisocial Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder

 

Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder, Schizotypal Personality Disorder

 

Avoidant Personality Disorder, Dependent Personality Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

 

2 points

Question 19

In order to be diagnosed with Bipolar II,

 

A person can NEVER have experienced a manic episode

 

None of the available choices

 

 

A person can NEVER have experienced a hypomanic episode

 

A person can NEVER have experienced a major depressive episode

 

2 points

Question 20

Which is the best definition of alogia?

 

Fixed beliefs that are not amendable to change in light of conflicting evidence

 

A marked decrease in reactivity to the environment
Decreased ability to experience pleasure from positive stimuli or a degradation in the recollection of pleasure previously experienced

 

Diminished speech output

 

2 points

Question 21

The primary way a hypomanic episode is distinguished from a manic episode by:

 

Severity of symptoms: A hypomanic episode is more severe and causes a higher degree of disturbance

 

Severity of symptoms: A manic episode is more severe and causes a higher degree of disturbance

 

Time frame: A manic episode lasts longer

 

Time frame: A hypomanic episode lasts longer

 

2 points

Question 22

Schizophrenia and schizophreniform differ in what way?

 

Schizophrenia is a more severe version of symptoms

 

With schizophreniform there are no negative symptoms
They are the same other than the time frame (schizophreniform is less than 6 months)

 

Schizophreniform is a more severe version of symptoms

 

2 points

Question 23

What is the best definition of delusions?

 

Fixed beliefs that are not amenable to change in light of conflicting evidence

 

Decreased ability to experience pleasure from positive stimuli or a degradation in the recollection of pleasure previously experienced

 

A marked decrease in reactivity to the environment
Perception-like experiences that occur without an external stimulus

 

2 points

Question 24

Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia – PDD) is distinguished from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) by:

 

PDD includes the presence of a hypomanic episode

 

For PDD there must be psychotic symptoms present

 

MDD is never associated with a substance-related disorder

 

For PDD, the symptoms must be present for  2 years or more

 

2 points

Question 25

Which of the following diagnosis fits this description: Marked fear or anxiety about one or more social situations in which the individual is exposed to possible scrutiny by others.

 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

 

Social Anxiety Disorder

 

Agoraphobia

 

Specific phobia

2 points

Question 26

Which of the following statements is MOST TRUE about schizoaffective disorder?

 

There can be no history of a substance-related disorder diagnosis

 

There must be the presence of prominent delusions and/or hallucinations for at least two weeks in the absence of a major mood episode

 

There must be the presence of a substance-induced affective disorder

 

The prevalence rate of schizoaffective disorder is significantly lower than that of schizophrenia

 

2 points

Question 27

Which of the following diagnosis fits this description: Marked fear or anxiety about some or all of the following situations – using public transportation, being in open spaces, being in enclosed spaces, standing in line or being in a crowd, or being outside of the home alone.

 

Social Anxiety Disorder

 

Specific phobia

 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

 

Agoraphobia

 

2 points

Question 28

In order to be diagnosed with Cyclothymic Disorder,

 

All of the available choices

 

A person can NEVER have experienced a hypomanic episode

 

A person can NEVER have experienced a manic episode

 

A person can NEVER have experienced a major depressive episode

 

2 points

Question 29

Which of the following statements is NOT true about panic attacks?

 

They only occur in individuals with panic disorder

 

There must be distinction made between a panic attack and a reaction to a substance

 

None of the available choices – All of the choices are true

 

They can be present in a variety of different disorders found within the DSM

 

2 points

Question 30

What is the best definition of hallucinations?

 

A marked decrease in reactivity to the environment

 

Decreased ability to experience pleasure from positive stimuli or a degradation in the recollection of pleasure previously experienced

 

Fixed beliefs that are not amenable to change in light of conflicting evidence

 

Perception-like experiences that occur without an external stimulus

 

2 points

Question 31

The major difference between delusional disorder and schizophrenia is:

 

They have different time frames for diagnosis – the symptoms for a delusional disorder must last at a minimum of 2 years

 

With delusional disorder, there are no other psychotic symptoms beyond delusions that are present

 

With delusional disorder, there must be a mood disorder also present in addition to the presence of delusions

 

A delusional disorder diagnosis requires that there be a religious influence on the delusions

 

2 points

Question 32

Cluster C personality disorders include:

 

Avoidant Personality Disorder, Dependent Personality Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

 

Antisocial Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder

 

Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder, Schizotypal Personality Disorder

 

Schizoid Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, and Dependent-Personality Disorder

 

2 points

Question 33

The major difference between schizophrenia and a brief psychotic disorder is:

 

Brief psychotic disorders only occurs in the presence of substances

 

Brief psychotic disorders primarily occurs in women

 

Brief psychotic disorders last 1 month or less

 

Brief psychotic disorders do not have a marked stressor associated with the onset

 

2 points

Question 34

Which of the following statement is true about schizophrenia?

 

Schizophrenia is most commonly diagnosed among individuals 15 and younger
Schizophrenia is known to be caused by abusive and cold parenting

 

There is a genetic test that is used to determine the diagnosis

 

Persons with schizophrenia have a high rate of comorbidity for other DSM disorders

 

2 points

Question 35

Which of the following is a protective factor associated with a healthier course of schizophrenia?

 

Family participation in intervention

 

Insight in to the disorder

 

Later age of onset

 

All of the available choices

 

2 points

Question 36

Cluster C personality disorders are characterized by individuals who often appear:

 

Paranoid and delusional

 

Dramatic, emotional, or erratic

 

Anxious or fearful

 

Appear odd or eccentric

 

2 points

Question 37

Which of the following would NOT be an example of negative symptoms in schizophrenia?

 

Grossly disorganized or abnormal motor behavior

 

Avolition

 

Diminished emotional expression

 

Anhedonia

 

2 points

Question 38

Which of the following statements is MOST TRUE about trauma?

ALL individuals who experience trauma will eventually receive a diagnosis of PTSD

 

None of the available choices

 

ALL individuals who experience trauma will eventually receive a diagnosis of adjustment disorder
ALL individuals who experience trauma will eventually receive a diagnosis of acute stress disorder

 

2 points

Question 39

Which of the following is MOST TRUE about Borderline personality disorder (BPD):

 

Most commonly diagnosed in women

 

All of the available choices

 

Over 50% of individuals who have been admitted to an inpatient setting for BPD have attempted suicide

 

The most common personality disorder found in clinical settings

 

2 points

Question 40

Which of the following is NOT a criterion for Major Depressive Disorder?

 

The presence of a manic episode

 

Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day

 

Significant changes in weight, either an increase or decrease of 5%

 

Feelings of worthlessness

 

2 points

Question 41

Which of the following is the MOST TRUE about the causes of anxiety-related disorders?

 

Both of the available responses

 

None of the available responses
There is research that demonstrates that genetics do NOT play a role in the development of anxiety disorders

 

The development of an anxiety disorder is thought to be an interaction between someone’s genetic vulnerabilities, social influences, and psychological issues

 

2 points

Question 42

Which of the following statements is MOST TRUE about anxiety and fear?

 

Anxiety can only be directed at ONE object or situation at a time

 

Anxiety is focused on the anticipation of a future threat and fear is the emotional response to a real or perceived imminent threat

 

Fear is focused on the anticipation of a future threat and anxiety is the emotional response to a real or perceived imminent threat

 

They are interchangeable constructs used based on cultural patterns

 

2 points

Question 43

Which of the following definitions characterizes hoarding disorder?

 

Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the individual feels driven to perform in response to rules that must be applied rigidly

 

Preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance that are not observable or appear only slight to others

 

Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value, as a result of strong perceived need to save the items and the distress associated with discarding them

 

Recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are experiences, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and unwanted, and that in most individuals cause marked anxiety and distress

 

2 points

Question 44

Which of the following is the BEST definition of a personality disorder?

 

An unstable personality structure that forms as a result of traumatic experiences and leads to extreme mood swings, withdrawal from relationships, and irrational beliefs about others. The personality structure varies depending on the presence of different individuals who trigger the symptom presentation.

 

An intermittent pattern of mood changes paired with unstable relationships that begin in middle adulthood that is primarily characterized by challenges with interpersonal relationships.

 

An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly form the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment.

 

A paranoid personality structure that is consistent with the cultural norm and is diagnosed after the individual has experience at least 2 brief psychotic episodes. It is characterized by delusions that are rigid and pervasive across different settings and contexts.

 

2 points

Question 45

Cluster B personality disorders are characterized by individuals who often appear:

 

Paranoid and delusional

 

Appear odd or eccentric

 

Anxious or fearful

 

Dramatic, emotional, or erratic

 

2 points

Question 46

What is the best definition of catatonia?

 

A marked decrease in reactivity to the environment
Decreased ability to experience pleasure from positive stimuli or a degradation in the recollection of pleasure previously experienced

 

Perception-like experiences that occur without an external stimulus

 

Fixed beliefs that are not amendable to change in light of conflicting evidence

 

2 points

Question 47

Cluster B personality disorders include:

 

Schizoid Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, and Dependent-Personality Disorder

 

Antisocial Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder

 

Avoidant Personality Disorder, Dependent Personality Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

 

Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder, Schizotypal Personality Disorder

 

2 points

Question 48

Cluster A personality disorders are characterized by individuals who often appear:

 

Paranoid and delusional

 

Appear odd or eccentric

 

Dramatic, emotional, or erratic

 

Anxious or fearful

 

2 points

Question 49

A way to distinguish Acute Stress Disorder from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is:

 

In order to be diagnosed with PTSD, the symptoms must be present for a longer period of time

 

Acute stress disorder lasts longer than PTSD

 

Acute stress disorder is a more severe presentation of symptoms

 

PTSD is a more severe presentation of symptoms

 

2 points

Question 50

Which of the following statements is MOST TRUE about depressive disorders?

 

Teenage girls have an increased vulnerability for depression

 

Both of the available responses

 

None of the available responses

 

Women are twice as likely to be diagnoses with depressive compared to men