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Which of the following is true about the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

It argues that language shapes what we perceive and think.
It argues that thought precedes language.
It argues that language is biologically determined.
It argues that the primary role of language is to describe reality.



Gender socialization begins at:

a. early adolescence
b. infancy
c. toddlerhood
d. adolescence



According to George Herbert Mead, the socialization process occurs in three stages: the “I” stage, the __________ stage, and the generalized other stage.

a. self-consciousness
b. othering
c. ego
d. “me”


Socialization is a process that takes place:

a. throughout our entire lives
b. in childhood
c. during young adulthood
d. at birth


While attending a prestigious lecture at a New York City museum, Cassie noisily belches several times and picks her nose. She is violating:

formal norms


The fact that suicide rates in the U.S. are highest in states with low population density reflects which kind of suicide, according to Durkheim?


How can the study of feral (wild) children on the one hand, and identical twins on the other, help to clarify the debate over the relative influence of nature versus nurture in the socialization process?


A feral child is about the people that lack basic social skills that can easily learn through the enculturation process. Feral child study is applying on children experience different childhood experience.  However, it has a close relationship with the nature of the child that brought up in the solitary state in a countryside area. These comprise upon those children that are by the animals, living solitary within a human society or without parents.  Amala and Kamala study by Bruno Bettelheim, who was a child psychologist, is one of fare child study. It described these two psychically and mentally disables children. Genie is another example of fare child who social, psychological and cognitive development has delayed due isolation. Even child never learn to vocalize. Thomas Bouchard conducted the Twin study of identical twins that have a different upbringing. One of the examples of twins is two twin brothers that separated at birth and reunited at the age of 39 years. They both have remarkably similar personalities. However, twin study

Provide no proof of genetic determination. They enter the world that is a blank slate. There is dynamic interplay ever continue between our wants, likes, and choices from the environment. The overall role is the gene in the trait and disorder development. Twins study conducted to analyze the environment and genetic effect on a particular trait.

  • How they impact the nature vs. nurture debate?
  • In psychology nature vs. nurturing debate is associated with the specific effects of the behavior is a product of either genetic or learned characteristics. The impact of the inherent and environmental issues and biological factors are analogs to each other. The debate is about nature that is central as well as an enduring feature of developmental psychology.

Choose ONE of the following (Milgram’s shock study; Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment, or Laud Humphrey’s Tea Room Trade). Summarize the study, and explain what aspect(s) of the study are now considered unethical and why. 


Summary of Milgram’s shock study

Stanley Milgram has done shock study to test the human capacity for doing the thing that is ethically wrong. However, they have to do as the authority tells it. In his study, he created an electric shock generator that has more than 30 switches. The voltage of electricity in these switches ranges from 15 volts to 45 volts. According to shock level, he also marks the switches as moderate, strong, severe and xxx. He collected 40 males through news add for participating in the experiment of learning and memory. In his study, he used two subjects among which one is real and other actions as the subject. He gives the role of teacher to the real subject as per setting. Teacher asked to teach pair of words to learner and upon making mistake gives a shock of 15 volts. However, learner never received a shocked and pre-taped displayed in front of subject acting as teacher. However, in this experiment no choice offered to the teacher and he has to continue it without any condition. So, that makes the experiment more authoritarian in order to analyze the level of obedience. Many subjects in the study were tense, uncomfortable and even continue to shock up to 450 volts.  The results of the experiment indicate that due to human innate behavior we do as we told especially from the authority.

SPECIFIC ASA ethical guidelines were violated and how

The study has violated the ethical guideline. For instance, 40 participants were taken part in the study, and no one was aware what is going on. The critical ethical aspect is misleading people that are invited to take part in the learning and memory experiment. Giving shock to other person and seeing them suffering from pain could be the possible harm of the study upon the subjects. The researcher did not explain subjects that they are free to quit at any time and continue to create a state of pressure and tension during the experiment. It could be harmful to the people having the weak stamina to face the pressure.


Sociologists argue that there are some human practices that are culturally universal, such as funerals and marriage rituals, which are practiced in exactly the same way in all societies.




A man whispers loudly to his friend at church, and several people nearby turn and glare at him disapprovingly. Their glares are an example of

a formal norm
a folkway
a more
a sanction


Sociologists who use __________ as a theoretical perspective argue that women’s lives and experiences are central to the study of society.

a. functionalism
b. Marxism
c. postmodern theory
d. feminist theory