Define all Key Terms and Concepts (1-3 sentences each) p 87

Define all Key Terms and Concepts

Enterprise Architecture (EA): This is more a plan that describes the existing situation in an organization and where it should head so as to achieve its mission while focusing on important aspects such as the business strategy and the subsequent technology needed to achieve it.
Computer: A computer is defined as any electronic device that can carry out the following operations: manipulation, storing, outputting data, and whose instructions can be programmed.

ASCII code: This is a code that defines the encoding sequence of keyboard characters into digital strings of ones and zeroes.

optical character recognition (OCR): This refers to the ability and the process of using specialized software that can easily read and interpret figures and letters in a picture file so as to convert it into a digital document.

Optical Scanners: This are electrical devices that can easily capture images or texts and convert them into digital formats.

Radio Frequency Identification: This is an identification technology that adopts the use of tags that are placed on small chips that have microprocessors, tiny antennas that receive and transmit data.
central processing unit (CPU): This is the unit of the computer that handles control tasks, calculations, and information processing.

Moore’s Law: This is a principle in the computing world that states that advances in technology such as processing speed or storage capabilities, doubles about every 2 years.

Transistor: This is a small electrical circuit is fabricated from semiconductor material such as germanium.

Byte: This is a unit of measurement that is mostly used in expressing the storage capacity of a computer.

Random Access Memory (RAM): This is a temporary memory that is usually loaded on by active programs so that it can be easily accessed by the CPU in the execution of instructions.

In-Memory Computing: This is the use of primary storage as the main place of information storage rather than use of secondary storage devices such as hard drives.

System Software: This is a computer software that controls basic computer operations such as integration with application software, hardware interfacing, disk storage, and file management.

Application Software: This is a software that support and manages critical functions such as individual and business activities, payroll, video editing, and transaction processing.

Software: This is a component of the computer that contains the
instructions that aid and directs the execution of tasks by the computer hardware.

Operating System: This is the category of system software that performs a variety of critical basic tasks, such as handling device input and output, maintaining file structures, and allocating memory.

Legacy Systems: This are outdated systems that are still in operations mainly because they function and are expensive to replace.

Programming Language:  This is an artificial language that is used to write software that provides the instructions for the computer on how to receive information, process it, and provide output.

Utility Software: This is the group of the system software that is composed of the programs that perform tasks that help in managing, tuning, and protection of computer hardware and software.

Object-Oriented Programming: This is a type software programming that focuses on “object” rather than lists of instructions and routines to manipulate data.

Source Code: All the statements that programmers write in a particular programming language to create a functioning software program.

Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS): These are commercially available computer software that are ready to buy, install and use.

Software as a Service (SaaS): This is a type of a commercially available software that is owned, managed, and hosted by a vendor, and is made available to customers who pay for different modules of the software and is accessed via the internet.

Bits per second (bps): This is the measurement of the transmission speed by expressing it as a number of bits that are transferred within a duration of one second.

Network: This refers to the infrastructure of interconnected phones, printers, computers, and displays that can share the same resources using standard communication principles.

Open Source Software: This is a software whose licensing terms comply with criteria such as free distribution, so other people can access the source code to improve it, build upon it, or use it in new programs.

Twisted Pair wires: These are wires that consists of thin, flexible copper wires used in ordinary phones.

Coaxial Cables: This is transmission medium that consists of single inner conductor wire surrounded by an insulation, and a mesh like conductor.

Optical Fiber: This is a type of cable that supports transmission by means of light pulses as opposed to electrical signals over a conductor.

Bandwidth: This is the maximum amount of information that can be transmitted in a particular channel.

Microwave Transmission: This is the technology that deals with transmission over the gigahertz range along the line of sight.

Hertz (Hz): The number of cycles per second of a wave.
wavelength: The distance between one peak of an electromagnetic wave to the next.
wifi: This is a computer network in which connections rely on radio waves at frequencies of 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz for transmission.
wireless router: A device connected to a computer network that emits signals from its antenna and enables wireless connectivity to the network.
Bluetooth: This is a type of technology that uses radio waves for connectivity, commonly used for wireless connections over very short distances.
Digital subscriber lines (DSL): Technology that supports high speed two way digital communication over twisted pair phone lines.
local area network (LAN):  This is type of network that  connects devices such as computers, printers, and scanners in a single building or home.
circuit-switched network: A type of network in which the nodes communicate by first establishing a dedicated channel between them.

client-server network: A type of network in which the workload for running applications is shared between the server and the client devices, such as desktop computers, laptops, or smartphones.
Voice over IP (VoIP): This is the set of programs that voice communication across a network using either packet switching and internet communication.
packet switching: This is a type of technology that used in the transmission of data as it breaks down data into segments, called packets, for transmission which contains information about destination and position.
n-tier: This is a type of IT infrastructure where different servers are interconnected and each is specialized for different function, and can be easily accessed by a customer executing certain transactions.
peer-to-peer network: This is a type of network that has no central sever as different computers acts as servers and thus aid in the sharing of printers, files, and even internet connections.
Ethernet: This is a communication protocol that is used majorly under the local area networks.

TCP/IP: In full, it means that the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet protocols that are crucial in internet communication.

WiMax: Technology that relies on microwave transmissions to blanket large metropolitan areas from microwave towers, usually on buildings.
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6): This is the new of the protocols of the internet that support more IP addresses compared to IPv4.

Virtualization: This is a situation where multiple operating systems run concurrently on a single physical PC server.

cloud computing:  This is the ICT architecture in which users’ access software users access
software applications and information systems remotely over the Internet, rather than locally on an individual PC or from servers in the organization’s data center.

Private Branch Exchange (PBX): This is a type of technology and program that manages all the office phone lines, voice mail, internal billing, call transfers, forwarding, conferencing, and other voice services.