Bio 100 Exam 3


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  • Question 1

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The DNA sequence for the same gene found in several species of mammals is…..?
Answers: a.

always identical among all species

b.

equally different between all pairs of mammal species

c.

more similar between closely related species than between distantly related species

d.

more similar between distantly related species than between closely related species

  • Question 2

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Which organism is, surprisingly, also a protist along with amoebas and pond water ciliates?
Answers: a.

A shittake mushroom

b.

The seaweed we call giant kelp

c.

A kangaroo

d.

An oak tree

  • Question 3

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The migration of fertile individuals, or the transfer of gametes, between populations is known as?
Answers: a.

crossing over

b.

the bottleneck effect

c.

non-random mating

d.

gene flow

  • Question 4

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Insects, crabs and centipedes are all arthropods. Which characteristics below help to define this important group?
Answers: a.

a hard shell or exoskeleton, soft insides, and many, jointed limbs

b.

six legs and the ability to fly

c.

visible rings (annulations) on the outside of a long, worm-like body

d.

a shell, a foot, and a spiny tongue, called a radula

  • Question 5

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The process of making new species is known as…?
Answers: a.

microevolution

b.

biodiversity

c.

speciation

d.

none of the above

  • Question 6

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Which of the following provides evidence for evolution?
Answers: a.

the fossil record

b.

direct observations of genetic changes in populations

c.

shared characteristics of organisms

d.

all of the above

  • Question 7

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A mushroom that you eat is actually what part of a fungus?
Answers: a.

The seed of the fungus

b.

The flower of the fungus

c.

The fruiting body, or reproductive parts of the fungus

d.

Just the head of the fungus

  • Question 8

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Polyploidy ______
Answers: a.

is when a species has more than two sets of chromosomes

b.

occurs more often in plants than in humans

c.

may result in sympatric speciation

d.

All of the above are TRUE

  • Question 9

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What three basic shapes do prokaryotic bacteria conveniently classify into?
Answers: a.

Rods, spirals and spheres

b.

circles, ovals and spheres

c.

triangles, rectangles and cubes

d.

spirals, squares and ovals

  • Question 10

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Which of the following skull characteristics differ between modern humans (Homo sapiens) and our hominid ancestors?
Answers: a.

a flat face

b.

an expanded brain case

c.

smaller jaw bones and teeth

d.

all of the above

  • Question 11

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What does bipedal mean?
Answers: a.

can see with both eyes in front of the head at once

b.

can ride a bicycle

c.

is able to make simple tools

d.

walks upright on two legs

  • Question 12

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What is a common name for the plants that science calls gymnosperms, or the “naked seeds”.
Answers: Conifers
Fir trees
Pine trees
 

All of the above

  • Question 13

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The process of man breeding domestic plants and animals over many generations and selecting individuals with desired traits is known as….?
Answers: a.

natural selection

b.

gradualism

c.

Darwinism

d.

artificial selection

  • Question 14

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What kind of trait is important to figuring out evolutionary relationships?
Answers: a.

shared derived traits

b.

shared ancestral traits

c.

analogous traits

d.

parsimonious traits

  • Question 15

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How can evolution cause changes in allele frequencies?
Answers: a.

gene flow

b.

genetic drift

c.

mutations

d.

All of the above

  • Question 16

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A scientific theory is generally defined as..?
Answers: a.

a best guess, or tentative explanation

b.

the results obtained from a single experiment

c.

a body of accepted general principles, supported by many lines of evidence

d.

anything a scientist says

  • Question 17

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Charles Darwin published an account of the evolution of organisms in the natural world in 1859. What was this famous book called?
Answers: a.

“Evolution”

b.

“On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection”

c.

“The Great Chain of Being”

d.

“Around the World on the Beagle”

  • Question 18

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Which of the following structures has probably been driven to extremes by sexual selection?
Answers: a.

the male peacocks tail

b.

elaborate mating dances in birds

c.

a male lions mane

d.

all of the above

  • Question 19

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Which scientific concept did Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace independently discover?
Answers: a.

mutation

b.

natural selection

c.

overbreeding

d.

sexual reproduction

  • Question 20

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Which of the following is NOT one of the areas of evidence used to support Darwin’s principle of common descent and evolutionary change?
Answers: a.

fossil record

b.

biblical scripture

c.

comparative embryology

d.

molecular biology

  • Question 21

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What is so special about the Galapagos islands?
Answers: a.

it is one place that has been shown to resist evolution

b.

it is where we believe all humans originated from

c.

it is where Darwin came up with his theory of evolution

d.

it is where bacterial drug resistance originated

  • Question 22

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Which situation would most likely lead to allopatric speciation?
Answers: a.

A flood causes the formation of a new lake

b.

A storm causes several large trees to fall down

c.

A mutation causes a new trait to develop

d.

An injury causes an organisms to seek out a new food source

  • Question 23

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Which of the following is an example of microevolution?
Answers: a.

the theory that humans descended from apes millions of years ago

b.

increased resistance of bacteria to an antibiotic that is used to kill them

c.

chimpanzees learning sign language

d.

humans teaching dogs to obey certain commands

  • Question 24

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Features of organisms that are related to one another through common descent are…
Answers: a.

convergent

b.

homologous

c.

divergent

d.

analogous

  • Question 25

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What principal characteristic can be used to distinguish mosses (bryophytes) from flowering plants (angiosperms)?
Answers: a.

Mosses are green but flowering plants are not

b.

Mosses reproduce using spores, while flowering plants use flowers and seeds

c.

Flowering plants do not grow in wet places, like mosses do

d.

Mosses are always way bigger, and taller, than flowering plants are

  • Question 26

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What is so special about a marsupial such as a platypus?
Answers: a.

It is a mammal that provides milk for its babies, but it lays eggs like a reptile

b.

It is not a mammal, it looks like a duck, but is really a reptile

c.

They used to live all over the world, but only today live in South America

d.

A mother gives birth to ten babies and then leaves them to care for themselves

  • Question 27

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What is the evolutionary value of sex?
Answers: a.

it is fun

b.

it is cheap, quick, and easy to do

c.

it generates genetic diversity in offspring

d.

none, as sex has no use in evolution at all

  • Question 28

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Which statement about the taxonomic classification system is correct?
Answers: a.

There are more domains than kingdoms

b.

Kingdoms are the top category of classification

c.

A phylum may be represented in more than  one kingdom

d.

Species are the most specific category of classification

  • Question 29

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In which of the following pairs of evolutionary processes do both processes introduce new genetic variation into a population?
Answers: a.

natural selection and genetic drift

b.

mutation and gene flow

c.

natural selection and gene flow

d.

gene flow and genetic drift

  • Question 30

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The wing of a bird and the arm of a human are examples of ………………?
Answers: a.

vestigial structures

b.

molecular structures

c.

homologous structures

d.

analogous structures

  • Question 31

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A population of mice lives along a river. Some mice cross the river to establish a new population. Eventually, due to genetic changes, these two groups of mice can no longer

interbreed. This is an example of..?

Answers: a.

speciation

b.

gene flow

c.

artificial selection

d.

creationism

  • Question 32

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What is a coelocanth?
Answers: a.

A special bone in the human body associated with the connection of the skull to the vertebral column

b.

A type of bone in the wrist of a panda

c.

An ancient lobe-finned fish discovered alive in the ocean after being presumed to be extinct

d.

A genus of human-like ancestors that evolved before the genus Homo

  • Question 33

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What is true about organisms that are a part of the same clade?
Answers: a.

They all share the same basic characteristics

b.

They evolved from a shared ancestor

c.

They are all on the same tree

d.

They have identical phylogenies

  • Question 34

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The fact that the flipper of a whale and the arm of a human both have 5 digits and the same kinds of bones can be used to illustrate that?
Answers: a.

genetic drift can cause the evolution of populations

b.

organisms can share characteristics because they share a common ancestor

c.

whales evolved from humans

d.

humans evolved from whales

  • Question 35

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Which statement about analogous structures is correct?
Answers: a.

They occur only as errors

b.

They are the same as homologous traits

c.

They are derived by response to similar environmental pressures

d.

They are a form of mutation

  • Question 36

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What was the name of the ship that carried Charles Darwin to the Galapagos Islands?
Answers: a.

The Origin of Species

b.

The Pinta

c.

The Beagle

d.

The Fitzroy

  • Question 37

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A monophyletic group is a …………………….?
Answers: a.

phylogenetic tree

b.

shared derived trait

c.

a character state

d.

a clade or branch with a common root

  • Question 38

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A tetrapod that lays eggs in water, has an aquatic juvenile stage, but as an adult generally lives in wet or damp terrestrial habitats describes which of the groups below?
Answers: a.

an agnathan

b.

a reptile

c.

a marsupial

d.

an amphibian

  • Question 39

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A large population of animals is split in two by a physical barrier. The gene pools of the two populations then diverge, until each population becomes a separate species. This is an example of?
Answers: a.

sympatric speciation

b.

allopatric speciation

c.

genetic drift

d.

reproductive isolation

  • Question 40

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You are the last surviving member of what family of mammals?
Answers: a.

the marsupials

b.

the hominids

c.

the monkeys

d.

the primates

  • Question 41

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Who developed our current scheme of biological classification (binomial species names) in 1758?
Answers: a.

Cuvier

b.

Lamarck

c.

Watson & Crick

d.

Linnaeus

  • Question 42

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Which group of Pacific islands did Darwin visit during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle?
Answers: a.

Aleutians

b.

Galápagos

c.

Hawaii

d.

Argentina

  • Question 43

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In natural selection…..
Answers: a.

the genetic composition of the population changes randomly over time

b.

new mutations are generated over time

c.

all individuals in a population are equally likely to contribute offspring to the next generation

d.

individuals that possess particular inherited characteristics consistently survive and reproduce at a higher proportion than other individuals

  • Question 44

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Evolution can be described as
Answers: a.

pre-designed change in the genetic characteristics of a population over time

b.

sudden shifts in the genetic characteristics of an individual in a population

c.

a change in the genetic characteristics of a population of organisms over time

d.

isolation of populations due to geologic forces

  • Question 45

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Which best describes the relationship between chimpanzees and humans?
Answers: a.

chimpanzees evolved from humans

b.

humans evolved from chimpanzees

c.

chimpanzees and humans evolved from a common ancestor

d.

chimpanzees and humans belong to the same species

  • Question 46

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The splitting of one animal species to form two or more species most commonly occurs..?
Answers: a.

by sympatric speciation

b.

by genetic drift

c.

by allopatric speciation

d.

suddenly

  • Question 47

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What is a phylogeny a description of?
Answers: a.

mutations

b.

DNA

c.

evolutionary history

d.

organisms on Earth

  • Question 48

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The DNA of chimpanzees and humans differs by about ….?.
Answers: a.

50%

b.

30%

c.

10%

d.

1%

  • Question 49

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Which of the following is not a vestigial trait?
Answers: a.

the tail of a human

b.

the legs of a snake

c.

the arm hairs of a human

d.

the beak of a bird

  • Question 50

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What type of body symmetry do jellyfish and sea anemones exhibit?
Answers: Asymmetry
 

Radial symmetry

Bilateral symmetry
Nematosymmetry