BIO 100 Exam 2


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  • Question 1

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During anaphase, _________
Answers: a.

the nuclear envelope breaks down

b.

chromosomes are aligned in the middle of the cell

c.

microtubules shorten to pull chromosomes apart

d.

the cytoplasm is divided between the two cells

  • Question 2

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 What method can you use to predict the possible outcome of a cross between two known parents for a single-gene trait?
Answers: a.

A pedigree

b.

Self-pollination

c.

Independent assortment, followed by random fertilization

d.

A punnett square

  • Question 3

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How many chromosomes are there in a human gamete (sperm or egg cell)?
Answers: a.

23

b.

46

c.

23 pairs

d.

millions

  • Question 4

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Separation of the sister chromatids is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis?
Answers: a.

prometaphase

b.

metaphase

c.

anaphase

d.

telophase

  • Question 5

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Which is an example of there being multiple alleles of a particular gene in humans?
Answers: a.

skin color

b.

blood groups

c.

fingerprints

d.

sickle-cell disease

  • Question 6

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Which of the following factors make cancerous cells different from normal cells?
Answers: a.

cancerous cells ignore contact inhibition

b.

cancerous cells override anchorage dependence

c.

cancerous cells are immortal

d.

all of the above

  • Question 7

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If a true-breeding black mouse and true-breeding white mouse are mated and the result is all gray offspring, what inheritance pattern would this be indicative of?
Answers: a.

dominance

b.

incomplete dominance

c.

multiple alleles

d.

codominance

  • Question 8

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What is a carcinogen?
Answers: a.

a common mistake made during meiosis

b.

a successful chemotherapy drug

c.

the point where two homologous chromosomes differ

d.

something that causes cancer

  • Question 9

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Which eukaryotic cell cycle event is missing in binary fission?
Answers: a.

cytokinesis

b.

mitosis

c.

cell growth

d.

DNA duplication

  • Question 10

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During meiosis I, tetrad formation allows for what process that is important for generating genetic variability?
Answers: a.

cytokinesis

b.

crossing over

c.

random fertilization

d.

kinetochore formation

  • Question 11

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It is virtually impossible that your DNA is the same as anyone else on the planet (except maybe an identical twin) because of _______
Answers: a.

random fertilization

b.

independent assortment

c.

crossing over

d.

all of the above

  • Question 12

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What is the phenotypic ratio for a Mendelian dihybrid cross?
Answers: a.

1:2:1

b.

9:3:3:1

c.

3:1

d.

16:3:1

  • Question 13

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Why do adult cells need to go through mitosis?
Answers: a.

they don’t; only meiosis occurs in adults

b.

to replace old or damaged cells

c.

to put only half the number of chromosomes in their sex cells

d.

to make new cells that are genetically different from the original cells

  • Question 14

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 Which of the following is a known risk factor for human cancer?
Answers: a.

Wearing really tight jeans

b.

Looking at the sun for too long

c.

Increasing age

d.

Driving an SUV

  • Question 15

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 Which of the following is considered a quantitative trait in humans?
Answers: a.

Height

b.

Skin color

c.

Weight

d.

All of the above

  • Question 16

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What is it called when members of a chromosome pair fail to separate during anaphase?
Answers: a.

crossing over

b.

hybridization

c.

chiasmatic malfunction

d.

nondisjunction

  • Question 17

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During cell division chromosomes appear as darkly staining, coiled structures. What is this DNA material called when it is in its diffuse state?
Answers: a.

centromeres

b.

chiasma

c.

chromatids

d.

chromatin

  • Question 18

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Genes that encode the proteins regulating the cell cycle are called?
Answers: a.

proto-oncogenes

b.

carcinogenes

c.

tumor genes

d.

checkpoint genes

  • Question 19

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Hemophilia is an example of what genetic condition?
Answers: a.

linked genes

b.

inbreeding depression

c.

a polymorphic trait

d.

a sex-linked recessive disorder

  • Question 20

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Dizygotic, or fraternal, human twins are…..
Answers: a.

always the same sex

b.

genetically identical

c.

the result of a single fertilization (sperm cell)

d.

no more similar than siblings born at different times

  • Question 21

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Which of the following is not a function of mitosis?
Answers: a.

gamete production

b.

growth and development

c.

asexual reproduction

d.

tissue repair

  • Question 22

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It is possible that an offspring gets part of their mother’s chromosome and part of their father’s chromosome due to ____
Answers: a.

lethal mutations

b.

pedigree mapping

c.

crossing-over

d.

sex linkage

  • Question 23

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The part of meiosis that is most similar to mitosis is ………?
Answers: a.

meiosis I

b.

anaphase I

c.

meiosis II

d.

interkinesis

  • Question 24

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Which event leads to a diploid cell in a typical life cycle?
Answers: a.

meiosis

b.

fertilization

c.

alternation of generations

d.

mutation

  • Question 25

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What is the likely evolutionary advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?
Answers: a.

sexual reproduction involves fewer steps

b.

less chance of using up the resources in a given environment

c.

sexual reproduction results in greater variation in the offspring

d.

sexual reproduction is more cost-effective

  • Question 26

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Which of the following is FALSE?
Answers: a.

genes are found on chromosomes

b.

a person’s genotype is their observable characteristics

c.

alleles are different versions of genes

d.

genes are segments of DNA that get expressed as proteins

  • Question 27

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Which of the following is the correct order of the sub-phases of Mitosis?
Answers: a.

anaphase, cytokinesis, metaphase, prometaphase, prophase, telophase

b.

prometaphase, metaphase, prophase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

c.

cytokinesis, telophase, anaphase, prometaphase, metaphase, prophase

d.

prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

  • Question 28

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Chromosomes are duplicated during what portion of the cell cycle?
Answers: a.

S phase

b.

G1 phase

c.

prophase

d.

prometaphase

  • Question 29

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Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) is caused by which process during meiosis?
Answers: a.

nondisjunction of autosomes

b.

tetrad formation

c.

crossing over

d.

random alignment at metaphase

  • Question 30

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A recessive trait will only be observed in individuals that are ………………….for that trait.
Answers: a.

heterozygous

b.

homozygous

c.

diploid

d.

homozygous or heterozygous

  • Question 31

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 What cellular organelle is responsible for growing the microtubule spindle that connects to individual chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis?
Answers: a.

The mitochondrion

b.

The centrioles or centrosomes

c.

The metaphase plate

d.

Sister chromatids

  • Question 32

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The end-product of mitosis is _______ daughter cells, each that are ____________
Answers: a.

4; diploid

b.

2; haploid

c.

4; haploid

d.

2; diploid

  • Question 33

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What organism did Gregor Mendel conduct his famous genetic experiments on?
Answers: a.

albino snakes

b.

pea plants

c.

evening primroses

d.

fruit flies

  • Question 34

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What is necessary for a cell to pass successfully through the G2 checkpoint?
Answers: a.

an adequate stockpile of nucleotides

b.

proper attachment of mitotic spindle fibers to kinetochores

c.

accurate and complete DNA replication

d.

cytokinesis was successfully completed

  • Question 35

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What tissue in your body has meiosis occurred in, or is occurring in at present?
Answers: a.

brain and spinal cord

b.

ovary or testis

c.

blood

d.

skin

  • Question 36

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The base-pairing rules for DNA state that…..
Answers: a.

any combination of bases is allowed

b.

T pairs with C, A pairs with G

c.

A pairs with T, C pairs with G

d.

C pairs with A, T pairs with G

  • Question 37

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What is the name of the enzyme that assists during DNA replication?
Answers: a.

RNA polymerase

b.

DNA polymerase

c.

ATP synthase

d.

deoxyribonucleicase

  • Question 38

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Why are comparatively few human genetic disorders caused by chromosomal abnormalities?
Answers: a.

most chromosomal abnormalities have little effect

b.

it is impossible to detect changes in the number or length of chromosomes

c.

most chromosomal abnormalities result in spontaneous abortion of the embryo

d.

it is not possible to change the length or number of chromosomes

  • Question 39

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 How does the human Y sex chromosome differ from the human X sex chromosome?
Answers: a.

The Y chromosome is much smaller than the X chromosome

b.

The Y chromosome only has sex genes on it, while the X chromosome has other genes, besides sex genes, present

c.

The Y chromosome is only found in human males

d.

All of the above are correct

  • Question 40

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A mutation is?
Answers: a.

an improvement in the copying accuracy of a gene

b.

a mistake during the copying of a gene that results in a change in that gene

c.

the homozygous dominant allele that masks a weaker or recessive allele

d.

always beneficial to the organism it occurs in the genome of

  • Question 41

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DNA is only visible as chromosomes during which phase of the cell cycle?
Answers: a.

S phase

b.

G1 phase

c.

G2 phase

d.

M phase or mitosis

  • Question 42

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During metaphase what are the chromosomes lined up across?
Answers: a.

the cleavage furrow

b.

the metaphase plate

c.

the cell plate

d.

aha…….nothing, as the chromosomes are not visible at metaphase

  • Question 43

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Why do females rarely get sex-linked diseases?
Answers: a.

because they have two copies of the X chromosome

b.

because they have larger chromosomes than males

c.

because they do not produce testosterone

d.

because they have better DNA repair processes than males

  • Question 44

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DNA replication results in….
Answers: a.

two DNA molecules, one with two old strands and one with two new strands

b.

two DNA molecules, each of which has two new strands

c.

two DNA molecules, each of which has one old strand and one new strand

d.

none of the above situations

  • Question 45

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Which of the following is a significant difference between mitosis and meiosis?
Answers: a.

there are two daughter cells in mitosis and four in meiosis

b.

meiosis has tetrad formation and crossing over, mitosis does not

c.

there is no duplication of the chromosomes (S-phase) in meiosis II, but mitosis always has an S-phase

d.

all of the above are significant differences between mitosis and meiosis

  • Question 46

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 What is an allele?
Answers: a.

A spare copy of a gene

b.

A protein

c.

A version of a gene

d.

The phenotype expressed by a gene

  • Question 47

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Cytokinesis in plants differs from that in animals because?
Answers: a.

a cleavage furrow pinches the plant cell in two

b.

an animal cell has a cell plate formed down the middle

c.

plant cells don’t undergo cytokinesis

d.

a cell plate forms in plant cells but a cleavage furrow forms in animal cells

  • Question 48

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 What is metastasis?
Answers: a.

When benign cancer tumors fade away and die

b.

When malignant tumors, or parts of tumors, break away and start new cancers in other locations

c.

A new class of chemotherapy drugs being tried by the FDA

d.

The center of a dividing cell where the chromosomes line up at anaphase

  • Question 49

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What determines the sex of a human child?
Answers: a.

How many chromosomes they have

b.

Whether the fertilizing sperm has an “x” or “y” sex chromosome

c.

birth order

d.

the sex of the grandfather

  • Question 50

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For a mutation to be passed to your offspring (children) it must be in what tissues?
Answers: a.

blood tissue

b.

gametes (sperm & eggs)

c.

somatic tissues

d.

all tissues in your body