Physical Education Annotated Bibliography

Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., Alcaraz, J. E., Kolody, B., Faucette, N., & Hovell, M. F. (1997). The effects of a 2-year physical education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. Sports, Play and Active Recreation for Kids. American journal of public health, 87(8), 1328-1334.

Sallis et. Al (1997) carried out their research on seven selected elementary schools each with one of three different conditions for implementation of physical education program for 4th and 5th grad students. The three conditions were that either the program was implemented by expert of physical education, by a teacher trained in physical education and lastly by an untrained teacher. Untrained teacher-led program was taken as a control group to carry out its comparative analysis with the other two groups. The analysis concluded that physical education programs can help improve physical health of the students and these programs can be more effective if led by experts/specialists in physical education. Major implication of this research is the induction of physical education experts to implement physical education programs for students.

Wallhead, T. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2004). Effects of a sport education intervention on students’ motivational responses in physical education. Journal of teaching in physical education, 23(1), 4-18.

Wallhead and Ntoumanis (2004) carried out comparative analysis of pre and post-intervention measures of enjoyment, perceived effort, perceived competence, goal orientations, perceived motivational climate, and perceived autonomy between a group of 25 students formally trained in sports education and a group of 26 students receiving traditional teaching approach to sports based activities. The purpose of the study was investigate the effectiveness of sports education intervention in enhancing students’ enjoyment, perceived effort, and perceived competence in physical education. The research concluded that sports education fostered adaptive motivational responses among students.two groups of students