Find an example from the Tsuda reading that illustrates the theory of segmented labor market and transnational social networks.
Example of Segmented Labor Market Theory
As explained by Tsuda, (1999, page 5), the acute shortage of unskilled labor in Japan in 1980’s worked as a strong pull factor along with the economic crisis (push factor) in Brazil. Thus the significant migrant flow was also strongly pulled by high demand and low supply of unskilled labor in Japan. Japanese being highly educated did not opt for unskilled labor jobs and they had enough highly skilled human resources to take the capital intensive jobs, hence the migration flow was mainly because of the secondary segment (labor intensive job market). According to Tsuda (1999), 48% of manufacturing companies in Japan were labor deficient in 1989 and this percentage increased to 60% by 1990. In addition, the Japanese youth were more socially mobilized and better educated due to which they did not prefer unskilled/low skilled labor. The unskilled labor was considered as dirty and dangerous. Hence, this is sufficient evidence that the migration flow was partly motivated by the dual labor segmentation in to primary and secondary segments.
Transnational Social Network
“Kansetsu Koyo” is an example of Transnational Social Network used labor recruitment and employment. This is an indirect recruitment system where the brokers in Brazil identify and select Japanese-Brazilian labor for immigration to Japan and send them to brokers in Japan. The brokers are in contract with different Japanese companies which hire labor from them and returns them after the work is done. Brokers are responsible for housing, paperwork and other things about the immigrants.