Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X and Theory Y proposed by McGregor suggesting two aspects of human behaviors (one of which is negative called theory X and another is positive called theory Y) to view employee motivation. These are the theories of human motivation and management. These theories explain two models of motivation applied by the managers in organizational communication, organization development, and human resource management. C. In other and, theory Y stresses on motivating role of encourages workers and job satisfaction without direct supervision.
Theory X and its Assumptions
In Theory X managers are more actively intervene and authoritarian to get the things done. It is based on the assumptions of the average worker in which: –
- It supposes that the average employee has less ambition, dislike responsivities, and work.
- Make the assumption that the employees are less intelligent and he does not like work, so it tries to escape from it.
- Resist change of the employee
- The employee must be persuaded, warned with punishment and compelled to achieve organization goals because they make an assumption that employee does not want to work.
- Employees have to be controlled and a threat to deliver work.
- Supervise the employee at every step.
Approaches to Implement Theory X
There are two approaches are used to implement Theory X. one is called the hard approach, and another is called soft approach. The hard approach depends on tight controls, implicit threats, coercion, close supervision and imminent punishment. The soft approach is opposite to it. It is characterized by leniency, less strict regulating rules, and leniency.
Theory X is most effective in terms of consistency of work because supervisions and managers are in complete control of the work. It also benefits a workplace.
Theory Y and its Assumptions
Theory Y managers positive opinion of employees, an optimistic and participative management style which encourages collaboration and relationship between managers and their team members to develop skills. They make the assumption that: –
- Employees have skill and capabilities that are fully utilized
- Workers are self-motivated to complete their task
- Employees are happy and relax to work on their own initiative
- They accept and seek responsibility
- Employees take the work as challenge
- Workers solve the problem imaginatively and creativity
Implications of Theory X and Theory Y
- Theory X explains that workers are reluctant to the organization changes. They encourage tight supervision and control of employees. It does not encourage innovation of employees.
- Theory Y provides opportunities to workers to take self- direction, and initiative to encourage work environment. They also encourage teamwork, decision making and decentralization of authority. They discover the ways in which worker can make a contribution to an organization.
The difference between Theory X and Theory Y
|Theory X||Theory Y|
1. Theory X highlights the importance of penalties, external rewards, and strict supervision
2. Theory X presents a pessimistic view of employee’s behavior and nature at work.
3. It encourages tight supervision and control of employees.
4. Lack of self-motivation in employees.
5. Employee avoids the responsibility.
6. Centralization of autocratic leadership and authority.
1. Theory Y stresses on motivating role of encourages workers and job satisfaction without direct supervision.
2. Theory Y presents an optimistic view of employee’s behavior and nature at work.
3. They encourage teamwork, decision making and decentralization of authority.
4. Employees are self-motivated.
5. The employee accepts the responsibility.
6. Decentralization of authority and participation in decision-making.
In the end, I would say that Theory X is a better style of management as compared to Theory Y. If my friend practices the Theory X style of management, then I would advise him to be ambitious to his work, and they should utilize their capabilities and skills in their work and they should self-motivated to their task.