History of The Classical Management Perspective


The classical management approach is the theory of management that focuses on the productivity, output and efficiency of workers, rather than the differences in behavior that exist among them. This approach merges two distinct branches-scientific management and administrative management.


The scientific management branch is concerned with improving the performance of individual workers. Scientific management theory was developed in the early 20th century by Frederick W. Taylor. Scientific management theory is important because its approach to management is found in almost every industrial business operation across the world. Its influence is also felt in general business practices such planning, process design, quality control, cost accounting, and ergonomics. Your knowledge of the theory will give you a better understanding of industrial management. Scientific management theory seeks to improve an organization’s efficiency by systematically improving the efficiency of task completion by utilizing scientific, engineering, and mathematical analysis. The goal is to reduce waste, increase the process and methods of production, and create a just distribution of goods. This goal serves the common interests of employers, employees, and society.


The administrative management branch focuses on managing the total organization. The primary contributors were Henri Fayol, Lyndall Urwick, Max Weber, and Chester Barnard. Administrative management theory attempts to find a rational way to design an organization as a whole. The theory generally calls for a formalized administrative structure, a clear division of labor, and delegation of power and authority to administrators relevant to their areas of responsibilities. Administrative management is one of the functions, departments or sections existing in any organization. The aim of the administrative function is to manage the information needs of the organization so that timely, relevant and accurate information can be given to managers at all the different levels, so enabling them to take meaningful decisions. Without such information it is not possible to manage any organization, function or process.