Lab 2:

Fluid properties

PART I

Objective:

Measuring the density of various liquids by using hydrometer.

Location:

UDC engineering department. 2nd floor laboratory.

Method:

Method is as follows that the temperature and specific gravity of liquid is measured and from that density is calculated.

Equipment:

  • Different liquids
  • Hydrometer

Procedure:

  • Fill the hydrometer with a water, and carefully check that it is clear of the walls.
  • Record the temperature of the liquid using thermometer.
  • Replace the water with liquid to be tested.
  • Float the hydrometer in each liquid than take the reading.

Results:

liquid Temperature oC Specific gravity g/cm3
Water 22 1
Pure vegetable 23 0.91
Olive oil 23 0.92

Plot:

Conclusion:

The hydrometer gives the specific gravity of liquids more whose temperatures were low.

PART II

Liquid density and specific gravity using pycnometer

Objective:

Use of pycnometer for the measurement of specific gravity and density.

Method:

By measuring the change in weight of a density bottle filled with the liquid to be tested than finding the density by the known volume and change in weight.

Location:

UDC engineering department. 2nd floor laboratory

Equipment:

  • Lever operated balance
  • Liquids for testing
  • F1-30 fluid properties apparatus
  • 50 ml gay Lussac Pycnometer
  • Electronic balance

Procedure:

  • set up and level the lever balance on a solid surface.
  • The lever balance supplied with F1-30 is sufficient to demonstrate how to change weight can be used to find the liquid density.
  • Ensure the pycnometer is dry enough, complete with its stopper and record its weight.
  • Fill the pycnometer with the liquid to be tested, let any bubble to enter it than insert the stopper fully.
  • Wipe it from outside properly.

Results:

water Vegetable oil Olive oil
Dry weight of pycnometer Mp= 18.62 Mp= 18.62 Mp= 18.62
Filled weight of pycnometer Mp+L = 68.98 Mp+L = 65 Mp+L = 64.82
Weight increase due to liquid ML = Mp+L – Mp = 50.36 ML = Mp+L – Mp= 46.38 ML = Mp+L – Mp = 46.20
Volume of pycnometer 50ml 50ml 50ml

Calculations:

For water:

1.0072

For vegetable oil:

0.9276

Olive oil:

0.924

Conclusion:

Using pycnometer the density of each liquid calculated. Bynsity is calculated. keeping the volume of the liquid constant its de