What is Political ideology? Chart the history of either liberalism or conservatism beginning with Adam Smith. Be certain to explain at least three ideologies within the ideological spectrum you have chosen. What ideology does the next American president need to espouse to improve its global presence?

Erikson and Tedin (2003) defined political ideology as a “set of beliefs about the proper order of society and how it can be achieved”. This definition attracted me because of its concise nature. According to this definition, political ideology is an understanding of how the society should function smoothly with some predefined social principles and how can these principles be identified.

History of Liberalism:

Liberal Economic Theory by Adam Smith (1776) Smith believed that the government should not control the supply, demand, prices and competition in a market. He believed in the concept of a free market where there will be a focus on producing the quality items to compete in the market. According to smith this would result in a more prosperous society.
                 Liberalism after 1815 Abolitionist and manhood suffrage movements spread, along with representative and democratic ideals. During this era Napolean was defeated and across the Europe there were nationalist ideas prevailing. The society was at that time across Europe had become liberal and nationalist.
Liberal Revolutions in 1848 People started to demand written constitutions as they wanted their civil liberties to be ensured. Governments in many countries were overthrown. People started to rise against the monarchies and voiced for liberal economies.
Social liberalism and social reforms In 1959, Jon Stuart Mill explained the nature of power in a society and its dynamics.
Welfare Reforms Beginning or 1900’s, concept or welfare oriented state.
Greater government intervention (Keynesian Economics) 1933, Social liberal Program in USA
Resurgence of Economic Liberalism After the cold war. 1980 and onwards.


In my opinion the next American president needs to adopt the principles of Keynesian Economics to improve its global presence. This economic approach requires the government to intervene when the economy is in trouble and help businesses get on their feet once again. This will ensure a healthy economy at home resulting in giving the government to focus on international issues and make a global presence.