Journal Articles

Exploring the Relationship between the Big Five Personality Factors, Conflict Styles, and Bargaining Behaviors

This study was performed in order to examine the relationship of individual differences in conflict handling and bargaining behavior to personality traits using the Big Five Inventory. 138 undergraduate business student volunteered for this study. 55% of them were female. Students were paired for a negotiation exercise. The results of the study suggested that extraversion is positively related to confrontational conflict styles while agreeableness is positively related to non-confrontational styles.  Competing, collaborating and avoiding predict bargaining behavior in negotiation outcomes (Ma, 2003).

  1. Gender Role , Organizational Status and Conflict Management Styles

Brewer, Mitchell and Weber (2002) conducted this research study to find difference in conflict management styles related to gender. 118 individuals from different organizational positions participated in the study. Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II and Bem Sex Role Inventories were used. The study suggested those individuals who hold higher positions in an organization are likely to engage in integrating conflict resolution style. Masculine individuals were reported to choose dominating conflict style while feminine individuals resorted to avoiding styles of conflict resolution.

  1. Coping with multicultural projects: leadership styles of Finnish project managers

For this study 47 Finnish multicultural project team leaders were interviewed to investigate their leadership style in multicultural projects. Mäkilouko (2004) suggests that 40 of the project leaders were inclined to task oriented leadership style. These leadership were less aware of different cultures in comparison to other project leaders who participated in the study. The remaining 7 Finnish project leaders incorporated relationship oriented project leadership style and were comparatively more aware of cultural differences.

  1. Predicting followers’ preferences for charismatic leadership: the influence of follower values and personality

Ehrhart and Klein (2001) conducted this study to investigate the influence of the values and personality on the followers of charismatic leaders. Participants were interviewed in a laboratory setting. The results of the study suggest that followers’ values and personality has a significant influence on their forming a charismatic relationship with either a relationship-oriented leader or a task-oriented leader.

  1. Management in Women-Owned Enterprises

Chaganti (1986) suggest that women are starting small and medium businesses at a much higher rate than men. This study was conducted to investigate the configuration of seven strategic elements i.e. shared values, strategies, structures, systems, staff, skills and styles in women-owned enterprises or WOE. Previous research has suggested that these seven factors have a greater impact on the success of an organization. Eight WOEs were studied for this purpose.

Articles from internet sources

  1. Why Jerk Boss Behavior Stems From Home (By: Adi Gaskell)


The author in this article has discussed the nature of “Jerk Bosses” in comparison to how they have been brought up. The author suggests that if a manager is abusive to his subordinates, it does not mean that he/she is deliberately doing so. Such a behavior might suggest domestic or personal issues. The author suggests that if your boss or manager is of such nature, you should strategically deal with him/her e.g. ignoring them.

  1. How to Answer ‘What’s Your Management Style?’ (By: The Muse)


This article sheds some light on getting prepared for the interview question about one’s management style. The author suggest that you must be able to define what good management is and then add up one of your unique managerial trait in answering the question to increase your success chances. You could also give an example about how you managed an earlier task at your previous job with your unique managerial trait.

  1. Lessons From Google’s Management Style(By: Tim Worstall)


This article discusses two unique hiring and management policies by the Google Inc. First is that Google identifies a good manager is who can allow creativeness and is not always around to supervise and restrict your abilities to know what you can achieve on your own. The second is you don’t need any formal education to be a part of Google Inc. the author has the two principles to the current politicians.

  1. At Aetna, a C.E.O.’s Management by Mantra(By: David Gelles)


Mark T. Bertolini who is a chief executive at Aetna, the health insurance company has introduced yoga and mindfulness for his staff at their organization. The training is free. Mark has also increased the minimum wage at his organization. Both these steps have reportedly increased the staff commitment to their job and their productivity. This is a new and unique way to productively manage your staff.

  1. Time management Isn’t the Answer (By: Mary Albright)


In the article the author has suggested that the notion that “you need better time management skills” is not always the answer when you are faced with a problem. Instead of better time management you might be in need of better self-management. The article further describes strategies for better self-management at home or at work.



Ma, Z. (2003). Exploring the Relationships between the Big Five Personality Factors, Conflict Styles, and Bargaining Behaviors. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.735063

Brewer, N., Mitchell, P., & Weber, N. (2002). GENDER ROLE, ORGANIZATIONAL STATUS, AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES. Int Jnl of Conflict Management, 13(1), 78-94. doi:10.1108/eb022868

Mäkilouko, M. (2004). Coping with multicultural projects: the leadership styles of Finnish project managers. International Journal of Project Management, 22(5), 387-396. doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2003.08.004

Chaganti, Radha. “Management in women-owned enterprises.” Journal of Small Business Management 24 (1986): 18.

Ehrhart, M. G., & Klein, K. J. (2001). Predicting followers’ preferences for charismatic leadership: the influence of follower values and personality. The Leadership Quarterly, 12(2), 153-179. doi:10.1016/s1048-9843(01)00074-1