Table of Contents

1     Introduction: 3

1.1      The history of Makkah Al-Mukarramah. 3

1.2      Religious and Geographical importance of the city. 3

1.3      The topography and the climate of Makkah Al-Mukarramah. 4

1.4      Population and environment in general 5

2     Environmental profile of Makkah city. 5

2.1      Air Quality. 7

3     Societal aspects: Urban form and surveillance and security. 8

3.1      Surveillance and security. 8

3.2      Urban form.. 9

4     Environmental aspects and environmental risks. 13

4.1      Risks. 14

4.1.1       Earthquakes. 14

4.1.2       Hurricanes. 15

4.1.3       Climate Change. 15

4.1.4       El-Nino. 16

5     Environmental pollution, Greenhouse Gases equilibrium and role of transport 16

5.1      Environmental pollution. 16

5.2      Transport pollution. 17

5.3      Assertion on the Existence of Global Warming. 17

5.4      Vaccination and catchable diseases. 18

6     Recommendations and conclusion. 18

7     Works Cited. 22


1           Introduction

1.1         The history of Makkah Al-Mukarramah

Makkah is a city of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and it has prime importance in Islamic world being the most sacred city because of Holy Kaba. This city is the host of the pilgrimage i.e. Hajj and almost 3 million people visits this city from all around the world for a religious purpose. Makkah is one of the oldest cities in the world.

1.2         Religious and Geographical importance of the city

Makkah is situated in the western region of Saudi Arabia and it is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is also the most respected holy place in Islam. The center of this city is Kabaa. With respect to importance, Makkah is divided into three regions that include Mina, Muzdalfa and Arafat and the Holy mosque.

Source (Maps of the World, 2016)

1.3         The topography and the climate of Makkah Al-Mukarramah

Makkah is a desert city and the climate of Makkah is a hot city which remains 18 centigrade to 30 centigrade in winters and the average temperature in summer exceeds 40 degree centigrade. The amount of rain is usually very less however there city has been affected by the floods and thunderous rainfalls. The city is also affected by the dust storms and hurricanes as well.

1.4         Population and environment in general

The population of Makkah is 1.6 million whereas 3 million people every year visit Makkah for pilgrimage. Millions of people come to Makkah for Hajj and the numbers of people are increasing every year. There are millions of accommodation places i.e. hotels and camps that are spreading around this holy city. The most important regions of the Makkah city include Masjid-e-Nabvi, Arafat and Muzdalfa; and Mina. The people who come for Hajj comes before the commencement of Hajj and these people stay there for approximately one and half month. Approximately three million people visits Makkah every Year and with the passage of time, the number of people visiting Makkah are increasing (Ascoura, 2013).

2           Environmental profile of Makkah city

From the demographic point of view, the most of the urban population is shifting outside the city of Makkah because there is a little value for the residential land. The commercial activities, hotels and hospitality institutions surround the most of the land surrounded by the center of Makkah. Because of the high religious importance and increasing number of people coming for pilgrimage every year, the importance of Makkah is very high.

There are numerous environmental factors that are affected by the increasing numbers of pilgrimage and the government and religious authorities are considering these challenges. Because of high volume of travel during pilgrimage, there is an increased traffic related air pollutants that include CO2, Nitrogen Oxides and CO are beyond the standards set by WHO especially during the Hajj period (Habeebullah, Munir, Awad, Morsy, Seroji, & Mohammed, 2015).

2.1         Increase in number of pilgrimages

Source (Ascoura, 2013)

There has been an annual increase in the number of pilgrims each year and these numbers are continuously growing. There have also been increasing expansion activities of Holy Mosque undertaken by the government of KSA. The infrastructure of this city is the host of major attention of the government of KSA and several modern features have been added to this city. These features include power systems, AC systems of the holy mosque, road and infrastructure, busses, rails and hotels and accommodation places. The expected growth rate for this city for 2020 is 164% and for 2030, this is 180%.

2.2         Air Quality

The air quality of Makkah city is below the standard set by WHO especially during the Hajj period. This imbalance is the result of the increasing air pollutants and decreasing pollutants removal rates which are also being affected by the meteorological parameters i.e. relative humidity, temperature and wind (Habeebullah, Munir, Awad, Morsy, Seroji, & Mohammed, 2015).

Source (Habeebullah, Munir, Awad, Morsy, Seroji, & Mohammed, 2015)

Although the factors contributing to the pollutants may include the air pollutants factors however there are also the meteorological parameters involved in the composition of the air quality. The wind speed can spread the locally emitted pollutants to spread in other cities whereas the resuspension of the dust particles can lead to storms as well. Further, there is also an active role of the rainfall, temperature and relative humidity.

3           Societal aspects: Urban form and surveillance and security

3.1         Surveillance and security

As Makkah is the host of international pilgrims and the host of the most sacred event for Muslims i.e. Hajj, therefore the importance of surveillance and security is very high for this city. The government of KSA has developed a structure of various institutions that carry out surveillance and security duties. Monitoring and safety contours depend on three components, mechanical and institutional (Hopper, 2012). Using the configuration can be done with the ultimate objective of security and decrease the effect of wrongdoing. From the perspective of the composition, the danger associated with the fault can be extended to the city level, and this should be possible by increasing the likelihood that criminals will be monitored exercises, distinguished and indicted. This should be possible through formal observation that CCTV cameras than the occasional recognition by workers; Also, the observation feature can be done through careful engineering position windows, entry doors, lighting, inside lighting and inside spaces with visual impairments. The surveillance and security is useful and crucial for the safety, convenience and security of the people and both the civilian and non-civilian institutions participate in the surveillance and security of the city.

The reason for the observation and security is to the welfare of the general population living in the urban structure as well as the visitors. The recognition procedure is not obliged to maintain the general population against external dangers as was the case in ancient times, rather in a flash; under observation consists of few components. The ability of observation and security in old urban communities as Mari city was worried about the focal power that is the rule and the army; however contour measures were further added as divisors. Current proof of this is the Great Wall of China; nevertheless, it guaranteed a large topographic area as opposed to a city. This will also be the optional ability of the city to secure the general population living there. The motivation behind the delegate elected body is to ensure that the sacred privileges of the general population are met, and the administrations of the organization are given to them. Recognition and security will ensure that the general public are protected against common crime and criminal offenses of each other; there should be an action neutralizing arrangement of wrongdoing and the indictment of wrongdoing that have passed keeping in mind the ultimate objective of ensuring administrative control. Administrative control will ensure that violations are not made, and this control can be deducted in two structures as talked about preventive control and correctional control. The correction control will perform the activities of the offenses took place. Anyway, the apprehension of the indictment will also give preparation of insurance other wrongdoing to occur.

3.2         Urban form

Urban structure is a crucial concept in urban studies, and speaks to some urban wonders. Urban structure is characterized by the space game plan people doing things, future spatial streams of people, goods and data and physical components that alter space in huge way in the framework of these activities, including the atmospheres, surfaces, and channels and fenced in areas (Sorensen and Okata, 2010). The Urban form of Makkah includes the weather, internal factors, external factors and city design.

From the standpoint of engineering and broadly urban structure is characterized by three core elements and incorporate these structures and their related open spaces, plots or parts, and the avenues (American Planning Association, 2006 p. 401). Engineers see urban configuration as a greater increase of the design, and it can be considered as planning the door namely smidgen higher level. The urban compound is concerned with the physical type of the city, structures and spaces among them and the investigation of major urban lines or urban design will manage the connections between the physical type of the city and the social forces that create and it also speaks of communication in the middle of open and private improvement (Greed and Roberts, 2014). Urban form and building is interconnected, and the sense of urban idea decides the engineering system (Pahl-Weber, 2013). Suggestions, for example, land use, thickness; plot, setting and building a specialized frame are predestined by large urban lines. This is why the registered urban communities and urban areas of advanced contrast to the diverse conceptualization of the urban structure and urban space. These qualities were contracted down and interpreted in the political initiative by way of popular government and was interwoven into the contours of the city. Chronic City plans, thusly, speak at the sight of the urban structure of the engineering, the anthropological perspective, policy and authentic. Contemporary improvements in innovative urban communities, for example: Makkah is the sample city, where the general travel is more upright than on a population level plan. One of the methods of reasoning characterized by such advancement of the community is expanding population and the lack of space that caused high rises and advanced materials, such as steel and cement post and present day materials, such as glass and aluminum made it conceivable to build these urban areas. The representation of adjustments in the urban structure can be seen and the New York contemporary types can be characterized to be affected by the private need to come on because of the population expansion and also progressions and innovative suggestions in urban development.

The social form in Makkah is comprised of the diverse population. The population of Makkah is 1.6 million however the visitors that come to this city are twice of the actual population of Makkah, therefore the temporary residents of the city are twice of the permanent residents of the city. This city represents people that are from diverse backgrounds and nations and these are usually the people who come for pilgrimage or Umrah in KSA. Social orders exist in time and space, and the spatial type of society is along these lines related to urban change and authentic development (Castells, 1983). To understand the urban structure, it is important to decide the component through which spatial structures are altered and thereby the urban significance is re-imagined. Urban areas are called spatial types of human culture, but in order to characterize the city, a specific limit of population or thickness is used for the group such as city population exceeds 5,000 people and so on. Urban communities are generally shaped by a chronic process, and they are not just framed by the rapid assembly of individuals in one location. In some cases, modern, the general population may accumulate in some spots namely found mine or newly established capital of the nation. Despite the fact that the essential elements of the spatial structure is the basic needs and climatic conditions, in any case, it is also clear that urban communities exist in the amazing climate, for example, Siberia, but the purpose behind this urban setting is normally the mining enterprises. Urban structure is a social process. Urban structure is not a social class in the sickening feeling of society as thoughts of arrangement. Urban social structure is the anthropological sense as a way out of the social structure, including measures such as monetary, religious, political and specialized operations. Random that urban areas are characterized as border focus, they go about as a source of military control and area control will be their basic ability. In case it is the mechanical urban areas, their motivation will be to make money and esteem bound advantage. Urban communities, in this way, have locations, and can be characterized as line managers based on their ability. The capacity of urban and urban significance therefore decides together the urban structure.

The adjustment of innovation has forced urbanization occur in the old perspective of the city as for the assets of food and water are changing. Despite the fact that non-spatial life was conceivable before, in any case, a man 10,000 years before would be living with hunting instead of growing. Food propensities would “Paleo” as opposed to grains in the light of growing and developing. However in the present time, with expanded financial improvement, the most current strategies to cultivate were receiving which expanded profitability and further refined the structure of efficiency and labor division of economies and nations progress and created. This encourages urbanization process than the general population tends to move in the light of the return of the classic needs disconnected life. In a related corporation, urbanization has made further progress in the light of the division of labor, which makes cash or coins, and the common qualities, companies and convictions.

The urban structure is characterized in a formative perspective in two ways: consistency and topological changes and intermissions say dynamic changes. The urban social change is seen to occur when another urban importance is created by many procedures (Castells, 1983). These procedures incorporate the change began with overwhelming class in the given society who have the institutional power to rebuild social structures; a controlled class creates a halfway complete or insurrection; the improvement of social development which essentially denies the predominant implications; and social assembly forcing a new meaning to the conflict forced regulated importance.

Space governmental issues and refinement of the diverse school contemplations and insularity are well related to the process of developing genuine progress in the urban structure. Although urban design is not the essential element influenced the spatial governmental issues, either it is connected in a roundabout way to the meaning of the urban structure and this way speaks to the fundamental belief of the structural system urban now and again. The representation procedure, whether the government of majority rule or despotism, decrypts the open degree of representation and he postured distinct ramifications to the extent that the privatization of the open space, safety and the recognition and perspective of urban structure.
Surveillance and security in urban areas this day have improved, and policy changes are made in metropolitan urban areas to provide better security for the general population. The contour and the strengthening of security, video surveillance and image recognition controller is given in the current urban areas. The urban structure and verifiable perspectives can be obtained from the configuration of the composition, the open and private space, and observation and basic elements can be distinguished.

4           Environmental aspects and environmental risks

The environmental aspects include the typical environment of a city whereas the risk includes the specific risks that are associated with a city. These risks can include earthquakes, hurricanes, climate change and El-nino. Both the air pollutants and the meteorological factors can affect the climate. Historically, the meteorological factors have affected the climate only however with the rise of industrialization, the human factor is also playing an important role in climatic change and the examples include the climatic changes caused by global warming.

4.1         Risks

4.1.1        Earthquakes

Seismic tremors or Earthquakes are the primary sources of dangers to individuals. The danger can be alleviated by evaluating the geographic action that might demonstrate a plausible seismic tremor. Numerous models were acted like climate estimating models to anticipate the event of a tremor in deciding the elements that add to the quake. Seismic tremors cannot be forestalled but rather the misfortunes of them can be evaded. Tremor causes just minor vibration in the ground yet bringing about the misfortune is not the wave but rather the harm brought on by the vibration or wave ancient rarities that were based ashore that is the houses and structures. The harm these things cause the most misfortune and the vast majority of the misfortunes are roundabout. Consequently, the majority of the dangers are identified with the wellbeing of structures which incorporate the selection of a specific style of development that decreases the misfortune coming about because of quake, and so on. Makkah has also been affected by numerous earthquakes because it lies with the Red Sea and its associated tectonic plates. Earthquakes are usually formed with the activity and collision of these tectonic plates and these tectonic plates are seismically active (KSU.Edu, 2016). The earth quake does not pose any significant risk, but these are the building structures whose crashing may pose serious risks to humans. In order to address the earthquake risks, there is a need to analyze the soil as well as there is a need to implement civil planning and building design planning so that the buildings can be protected from the earthquakes. Earthquake can also affect the transport routes which can affect the supply chain system of the city. As the city is dependent on several factors such as food and other facilities which are not made in Makkah, therefore this may affect the city adversely.

4.1.2        Hurricanes

The level of CO2 builds the temperature of the sea surface and the bed of the sea, which expands the level of the sea (National Science Foundation, 2011) vitality despite the fact that the temperature variety is between 1 degree Celsius to 3 degrees Celsius. Despite the fact that it will not boil water, however it will increase kinetic energy in the atmosphere. This is the same as the old steamer train motor. On the off chance that you warm the railroad motor with smoldering coal, water will turn out to be considerably more vivacious and show El Nino-like conduct. Waterfront regions are the most influenced with various stuff builds the stature and force of sea waves and they have a tendency to infiltrate the earth and can make harm individuals and property. Environmental change hugely affects the sea, in light of the fact that the sea is 70% of the earth and is in this way influenced by the saved carbon into the climate of the earth in light of industrialization. Flood and storms are also the major challenges faced by Makkah. Previously, the city has been affected by flood and storms and being a very dynamic city, the importance of the storm drainage system is very high. Recently the government of KSA invested 1 billion riyals for developing the storm drains.

4.1.3        Climate Change

Environmental change is making extreme tropical storms. The atmosphere is a strong stage that can give a limit to a sea tempest by giving overabundance vitality in a field identified with the sea that can prompt the making of a solid tempest (PBS NewsHour, 2012). A sea tempest can be shaped by the power of the solid wind, the absence of gaseous tension that makes a potential vitality as the wind stream moves emphatically to these destinations that cause solid winds and these winds are available at first glance the sea, the aftereffect of typhoons that might accompany watersheds and seaside zones can influence adversely.

4.1.4        El-Nino

El Nino is a movement in which the atmosphere is because of the hyper action of climatic variables. These elements might incorporate expanded temperature, saltiness, and the expansion of the motor vitality in the sea and the air that can bring about El Nino to happen. The El Nino might be a monotonous cycle as the monetary subsidence which might normally be shaped and, in addition, this procedure can be enfueled by human exercises. Expanded industrialization has prompted an expansion in CO2 emanations, and the equalization of nursery gasses has been influenced is the reason for a dangerous atmospheric deviation. An Earth-wide temperature boost directly affects atmosphere and the El-ninos because of happening.

5           Environmental Pollution, Greenhouse Gases equilibrium and role of transport

There are numerous kinds of environmental effects due to pilgrimage.

5.1         Environmental pollution

The air pollution in the developed and under developed countries can affect the human health, the eco system, infrastructure, social and spatial form of a city (Habeebullah, An investigation of the effects of meteorology on air pollution in Makkah, 2013). The atmosphere is influenced in two unique ways. One is a characteristic Mechanism, which brings about change in the atmosphere, and this might include a fluctuation in the arrangement of physical wonders that influence the climate. The second wellspring of effect is the human exercises. The human exercises includes industrialization period, which has brought about expanded emanation of the nursery gasses. As the nursery gasses equalization is influenced, this has brought about an expansion in the general temperature of the earth. Besides, the expanded outflow of the carbon dioxide and PVC (poly vinyl chloride) has influenced the ozone layer, which is bringing about presentation of earth to the bright beams over the ice. As per an exploration, there has been a general increment between 1.4 to 5.8 degree centigrade on the earth in view of the expanded industrialization and CO2 discharge. Some contend that the a dangerous atmospheric deviation is a characteristic wonder; in any case, there is most likely in the earlier century, the emanation of CO2 has been more than the aggregate CO2 discharge ever. There is unquestionably awkwardness in the earth and there is a need to remedy the normal harmony of the world and the preservation of the earth.

5.2         Transport pollution

The most of the environmental pollution accounts for the transport systems and they represent almost 40% of the entire pollution. Almost 90% of the transport pollution is accounted to the road transport. This pollution can be reduced if the government implements the mass transit systems, which are already in place. The industrial activity in Makkah is very less and most of the goods are imported from the domestic and international destinations however, the most of the source of pollution is the transport. This city is also vulnerable to climatic changes. Although the city is in the low rainfall region however there is a history of the floods for this city. Therefore, any continuous rainfall can result in a chaos to this city. The global environmental change and the El-nino phenomena might also affect the weather of Makkah. The global warming is increasing and these results in depositing excessive energy to the winds and oceans which can lead to the hurricanes, thunderous rainfalls and storms.

5.3         Assertion on the Existence of Global Warming

The Global warming is occurring in light of the fact that the general equalization of the Greenhouse gasses has been influenced. There is an excessive amount of carbon stored in the environment of the earth and that assimilates the warmth and does not release it back. The overabundance of carbon has happened because of expanded industrialization and usage of fossil fuel and coal. The most of the impact of global warming is global however there is also a direct effect of the pollution of the particular city on the environment of the city. The adverse impact on the environment can be painful for both the temporary and permanent residents of the Makkah; therefore there is a need to undertake study regarding the environmental changes that are occurring in Makkah.

5.4         Vaccination and catchable diseases

Because the pilgrimage in Makkah is a host to numerous Muslim nations and people from many countries come to KSA, they represent their diverse environment and they may be affected from seasonal change. This seasonal change can affect their health. Further, these people, who might be sick, can also act as carrier of communicable diseases. For this purpose, the government has implemented the vaccination laws to ensure that the pilgrims be protected from communicable diseases by enacting the compulsory vaccinations of the pilgrims at the arrival or departure airports.

6           Recommendations and conclusion

Air pollution has a significant impact on the health of the people, relative environment, visibility, and the social and urban form of a city. There is therefore a need to reduce the air pollution and limit to the minimum possible level. This can be done through adopting the policies that limits the emission of various air pollutants and these can be sanctioned under the municipal or city planning activities. There are various strategies that can be adopted to reduce the overall adverse impact of the air pollution and these can include specifically the transport related changes in Makkah city. A mass-transport system can be introduced and the second solution to the air pollution problem in Makkah is the introduction of the hybrid vehicles that use both the traditional fuel and the alternative energy such as electricity. The government of KSA should therefore promote the alternative fuel vehicles and mass transport systems so that the transport needs of the people can met as well as the air pollution caused due to road traffic can also be reduced.

There can be various methodologies for the diminishment of a worldwide temperature alteration and carbon sequestration, and the two chose systems to incorporate the centralizing so as to lessen of size of introducing so as to voyage vehicle the vehicles and furthermore half and half autos and option fuel vehicles. Transport represents just about 40% of the CO2 discharge worldwide, and if the vehicle is engaged as a procedure to diminish the ecological perils, it can bring about the cleaner environment to be made accessible to the future eras.

The main methodology is to utilize brought together vehicles and concentrated transport framework that advance the utilization of open transport rather than the private transport. This system can be helpful because just about 90% of outflow in transport is because of street transport (Oshitani, 2013). This will bring about lesser utilization of fuel and more than 50 individuals can go in a same vehicle i.e. transport and even 1000 individuals if there should be an occurrence of the train. This can consequently lessen the CO2 outflow by just about 50 times to 500 times in view of the quantity of vehicles that will be decreased on account of such open transport.

The second system is to dispatch the half and half hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles can work from the electric power and in this manner will bring about no effect on the earth; rather, it will bring about zero effect on the grounds that there is no CO2 discharge as a result of the power controlled autos. Besides, there is likewise an issue of the hybrid energizes, on the grounds that there accessibility, cost adequacy and proficiency of the autos is an awesome test. Along these lines cross hybrid autos with the utilization of fossilized fills and power can expand the auto mileage per gallon by up to 10 times and this can lessen the general CO2 discharge by right around 10 times. There have been various government bolster exercises be that as it may, there is a need for a compelling activity plan to restrict the general CO2 discharge and this should be possible by sponsoring the option or hybrid autos industry and by permitting them the tax breaks also. This will spur the makes to construct the hybrid autos as there is no business sector in the blink of an eye for the mixture autos and also this will rouse the general population to buy the cross breed cards to spare the expenses of the fuel and in addition charges (Anderson and Anderson, 2005). This technique can prompt profitable results and it will resolve the chicken and egg mystery in the hybrid car industry as this will urge the produces to construct the autos and then again, by unwinding expenses and costs, it will make an interest from the general population of buying the crossover cards.

In the event that these two procedures are received, this can fundamentally diminish the unfriendly effect on the environment that is brought about by the earth. This will diminish the contamination brought about because of street activity as it speaks to 90% of the contamination from transport while just 10% records for different sorts of transports i.e. transports, trains, and aero planes.

There have been various political and institutional endeavors to lessen the industrialization impact and the contamination impact that is brought about by then the utilization of the vehicle vehicles and the businesses. There is additionally enactment present as carbon assessments and the cases can be found in the nations, for example, UK where the expense rates are distinctive for various levels of CO2 emanations of the autos. The duties are lower on the autos with lower CO2 outflows though the assessments are high on the autos whose CO2 emanation is higher. This is a case of approach control to control the general contamination of the earth. There are various investigative confirmations that the CO2 emanations and the ignition of the fossil duels add to the a dangerous atmospheric deviation, in this manner so as to battle with a worldwide temperature alteration, there is a need to outline and actualize the procedure that lessens the CO2 discharge and this should be possible through the presentation of overall carbon assess and welcoming the nations to execute carbon charge on transport and commercial ventures and utilizing the cash for the preservation of the earth (Dornbusch and Poterba, 1991). The thought to apply carbon duty will act in same as far as possible the macroeconomic extension of the nation and decreases the swelling. Thusly, this can go about as a partner of the monetary financial approach and it can prompt effective results for the countries and the world by any means.

There is also a need to implement the policy control regarding the vaccination of the people so that they do not act as the carriers of the communicable diseases. This can help the people be protected from the diseases such as flu, mumps, TB and other communicable diseases. The government of KSA should make sure that the respective governments of the people whose citizens come to KSA for pilgrimage make sure that these people take the preventive steps so that they do not get sick or become the carrier of sickness.


7           Works Cited

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Ascoura, I. E. (2013). Impact of Pilgrimage (Hajj) on the Urban Growth of the Mecca. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 255-263.

Castells, M. (1983). The City and the Grassroots: A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements. University of California Press.

Chapman, L. (2007). Transport and climate change: a review. Journal of Transport Geography, 354–367.

Dornbusch, R., & Poterba, J. M. (1991). Global Warming: Economic Policy Responses. MIT Press.

Greed, C., & Roberts, M. (2014). Introducing Urban Design: Interventions and Responses. Routledge.

Habeebullah, T. M., Munir, S., Awad, A. A., Morsy, E. A., Seroji, A. R., & Mohammed, A. M. (2015). The Interaction between Air Quality and Meteorological Factors in an Arid Environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 576-580.

Hopper, L. J. (2012). Landscape Architectural Graphic Standards. John Wiley & Sons.

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Oshitani, S. (2013). Global Warming Policy in Japan and Britain: Interactions between Institutions and Issue Characteristics. Manchester University Press.

Pahl-Weber, E. (2013). Urban Challenges and Urban Design Approaches for Resource-Efficient and Climate-Sensitive Urban Design in the MENA Region. Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin.

Sorensen, A., & Okata, J. (2010). Megacities: Urban Form, Governance, and Sustainability. Springer Science & Business Media.