Paper: Steps of Measurement Process
Measurement is the way toward allotting numbers or marks to people, items, or occasions, as per speciﬁc rules for speaking to amounts or characteristics of qualities. Measurement process is a method used to allot numbers that reﬂect the measure of a quality controlled by a man, article, or occasion. Note that it is not the individual, article, or occasion that is being measured, yet rather its characteristics. A specialist, for instance, does not quantify a purchaser as such but instead measures that customer’s states of mind, wage, brand dedication, age, and other important components (Scott Smith, 2012). Measurement process is much valuable and important in the marketing research and it is carried out using six different steps.
This essay is the analysis and evaluation of different steps used in the measurement process and that how important they are.
Steps of Measurement Process
As mentioned earlier, the measurement process is usually carried out in six different steps. These steps include identifying the concept of interest, to develop a construct, to define the concept constitutively, to define the concept operationally, developing a measurement scale and finally, evaluating the reliability and validity of the measurement.
Step 1: Identifying the Concept of Interest
This is the first stage of measurement process which involves the identification of concept of interest. An idea that is generalized form specific facts is abstractedly a concept. In this step, the sense data is grouped together considering all of them as same. At the main streets and south streets intersection, the perceptions about a stop light which form a category of thoughts, generally a narrow one. For a broader concept, the example of perceptions of stoplights regardless of their location can be considered (McDaniel & Gates, 2013).
Step 2: Developing a Construct
Constructs are also a specific form of concepts which include a higher level of abstraction as compared to general concepts. They are generally developed for using them theoretically and they usually cut across different already existing groups of thought. The constructs’ value depends on their usefulness in controlling, explaining and predicting the phenomena (Schuetz, 2009). The constructs are not directly observable, generally and instead of it, they are observed indirectly from results i.e. findings of a questionnaire. Some examples of constructs related to marketing can include the social class, channel power and personality etc.
Step 3: Defining the Concept Constitutively
The next step of the measurement process is about defining the construct constitutively, as the title states. Defining a concept constitutively is actually its theoretical or conceptual definition of the meaning of central theme of study, also defining its boundaries. Constructs that are associated with a scientific theory are required to be defined in the above mentioned terms. Hence, any constructs that possess constitutive meaning can be used in the theories. A constitutive definition is believed to be fully distinguishing the concept based on investigation from all other related concepts which make the study concept readily discernible form similar but different concepts.
Step 4: Defining the Concept Operationally
If the constitutive definition is done well and in a precise manner, the operational definition of the concept becomes much easier. This concept refers to the measurement of observable characteristics and the process that will be used for assigning value to the concept. Generally, it can be said that it involves assigning meaning to construct for the operations which are necessary to measure it in different concrete situations (Graham, 2006).
Step 5: Developing a Measurement Scale
This can be said as most important step in a measurement process which is about developing a measurement scale. A scale can be defined as a set of number or symbols which are constructed in such a way that these numbers or symbols can be assigned using a rule to the individuals, attitudes or their behaviors to whom the scale is applied. Hence, this stage of the measurement process is completely about developing such a scale which fulfills the requirement of the study and the process (The Market Research Process: 6 Steps to Success , 2011).
Step 6: Evaluating the Reliability and Validity of Measurement
This is another valuable step in the measurement process which is also the last step. It is believed that an idea marketing study provides such information which is precise, timely and accurate. Here, a formula is used to measure the reliability and validity of measurement considering M=A. M refers to measurement while A is used for complete accuracy. Hence, the last step of the measurement process is about evaluating and assessing the reliability and validity of measurement results.
Measurement process is an important part of marketing research studies which involves different steps of defining the constructs and concepts and the evaluating the reliability and validity of measurement studies. Measurement process is widely used in marketing research and for carrying out an effective measurement process, a researcher needs to go through all of these steps.
Graham, R. M. (2006). Four Steps to Ensure Measurement Data Quality . Quality Progress.
McDaniel, C., & Gates, R. (2013). The concept of measurement and attitude scales. In Marketing Research Essentials (8th Edition ed., pp. 208-242). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Schuetz, G. (2009). Five Steps to Complete Your Measurement Process . Quality Magazine.
Scott Smith. (2012). Marketing Research Process: 9 Stages to Marketing Research Success . Marketing Research.
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