Step 2. Key concepts Ú

 

Step 3. Sources Ü

Impact of Sports on treatment of trauma patients X= Sports Y= treatment of trauma patients Trauma Informed Sports
Straussner & Calhan (2014) “trauma refers to an experience that is emotionally

painful, distressful, or shocking and one that often has long term negative mental and physical consequence (p. 323)”.

 

Traumatic event is the one that causes long term stress that overwhelm the victims’ ability to cope (p. 323).

 

Researchers refer to trauma as objective e.g. a soldier losing his legs in a bomb explosion, however, the effect of trauma is subjective which means the actual or perceived impact of the traumatic event (p.323).

 

Consequences of trauma include disorganization of thinking, impairment of judgement, changes in reaction times (p. 323)

 

Impacts of trauma and treatment approaches required, vary with different stages in life cycle (p. 324)

 

Large T trauma can impact people and include natural disasters and human-caused disasters. Also, it includes prolonged or multiple events. (e.g. hurricanes, floods, wild fires, nuclear disasters, deadly car accidents, violence) (p. 324)

 

Micro trauma are harder to identify than Large-T traumas (e.g. being bullied in school/workplace, being stalked, living in poverty, etc.) (p.324)

 

Large T trauma = “complex trauma”

 

-Child physical or sexual abuse

-Never ending wars

-Constant acts of terrorism (p.324)

-Constant acts of terrorism (p.324)

 

-Recent United States- based studies document higher rates of PTSD among
*African-Americans, *Latinos
*American Indians
* women are more likely to develop PTSD.

Approaches required to treat trauma patients vary depending on developmental needs of patients. Trauma patients in different stages of life cycle experience trauma differently and therefore require different approaches to treatment (p. 323)

 

Patients in different stages of life cycle cannot be treated using one single approach to trauma treatment or one can say that there is no single approach to trauma treatment that works for all ages and situations (p. 329).

 

Treatment approaches must be aligned with age, gender, cultures and other factors specific to each patient (p. 329)

 

Interventions with traumatized adults:

 

-Psycho-education (process of teaching patient about their illness)

-Cognitive behavioral therapy

-Exposure therapy

-EMDR (eye movement desensitization)

-Narrative therapy

Group therapy and medications

Agaibi & Wilson (2005) Trauma is defined by stressful events which decrease the ability to cope and adapt.

 

“experiencing, witnessing, or confronting events that involve actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others” (p. 196).

 

Rutter (1990), and Norman Garmezy (1991), who studied children thought to be “at risk” because of economic poverty, severely mentally ill parents, or developmental deprivations of different types (e.g., neglect, abuse, poverty, social class) (p. 198).

 

Treatment seeking trauma patients show higher levels of anxiety and PTSD.

Theoretical models of traumatic stress syndromes and the literature on PTSD have established that there is a wide range of outcomes in how persons cope with traumatic experiences (p. 195).

 

PTSD has different affects on males and females

 

Approaching coping styles shows that that people with PTSD show less symptoms, than people who avoid coping.

 

Good parenting is associated with the development of cognitive skills that facilitate greater competence in coping with different types of stressors.

 

Social support helps veterans overcome trauma (204) and it would display fewer PTSD symptoms than veterans with less support.

 

Social support could benefit veterans from traumatic disorders “They suggested that hardy veterans would utilize social supports in their environment to overcome a stress.”(204)

 

 

 

 

Purves and Erwin (2004) Only a portion of those exposed to trauma develop PTS. Women are more willing to express their emotions than men.

 

Dis-closure have different impacts on different genders.

 

Self-disclousre is a form of resilience

 

According to Purves and Erwin, “Sharing of feelings around significant events is a natural and frequently occurring phenomenon and may help people to understand their own emotional experience.”(p. 24)

 

Patterns of self-disclosure are generally important influences on coping strategies and the effective use of defense mechanisms.

 

Less sharing of emotions causes poor outcomes on treatment approaches

 

Decrease in willingness to disclose emotions of stress and anxiety cause increased symptoms of trauma among women (p. 30).

Harris (2014) (Tedtalk by medical doctor) Children are sensitive to stress activation, because their brains and bodies are just developing.

Things that change our physiology.

1.       Abuse

2.       Neglect

3.       Growing up with a parent who struggles with mental illness

 

Trauma is common and has a relationship to the toxic stress which leads to the diseases. But it also treatable when we pretend children form ACE.

Internal and external risk factors: the repeated stress of abuse, neglect and parents struggling with mental health or substance abuse issues has real, tangible effects on the development of the brain.

 

Early difficulties in children lives affect how their brains and bodies develop.
They also become at higher risk of many diseases later in their lives including lung cancer and heart disease.

 

 

 

 

 

treatment practices like  home visits, care, coordination, mental health care, nutrition, holistic interventions, and yes, medication
educate parents about the impacts of ACEs and toxic stress the same way you would for covering electrical outlets, or lead poisoning, and we tailor the care of our asthmatics and our diabetics in a way that recognizes that they may need more aggressive treatment, given the changes to their hormonal and immune systems.
Kelly (2014) (Tedtalk by social worker) A motional brain becoming literally survival brain. Since children feel unsafe to all

 

Alarm system in the brain become terribly disordered. We need alar system to register danger, but it perceives, danger everywhere.

 

The ability to apreys the present and to learn from the experience. Negative early experience are profound. The later good memory can’t balance them.
We should build new relationships with people who were suffered trauma.

Call for a focus on someone’ behavior and on drive behavior.  Drive behavior is more important than someone’s behavior.

 

Social support help children develop normally

 

trauma affects us all; the trauma informed care is a way that people connect to each other and helps them to reduce the trauma.

D’Andrea, Bergholz, Fortunato, and Spinazzola (2013) Adolescents in residential treatment settings have symptoms that prevent them from participation in normal youth activities, which in turn prevent development of social skills and competencies

 

Lyons et al. (2000) found that in adolescents, emotional, interpersonal and

behavioral problems often prevent them from engaging in

“normal” teenage activity.

 

Physical activities in the class room promote better behavioral outcomes among children.

 

Team sports are effective in treatment of severely traumatized children.

 

Recent research has focused on sports psychology for treatment of complex trauma among youth.

 

The impact of sports or physical activities on mental health are well-established.

 

“Sports lead to positive youth development”

 

Sports require individuals to handle difficult social situations and establish a goodwill with their coach.

This goal is attained through live-action coaching to caregivers in service of three main goals: 1) providing specific, behaviorally-anchored expectations to children; 2) devoting positive attention to children during play; and 3) providing concrete, specific praise for positive behavior (Eyberg et al.

1995)

 

Recent research has focused on sports psychology for treatment of complex trauma among youth.

 

The impact of sports or physical activities on mental health are well-established.

 

“Sports lead to positive youth development”

 

Sports require individuals to handle difficult social situations and establish a goodwill with their coach.

 

 

 

“Overall, trauma-informed sports as an adjunct to TAU appear to have had a significant positive impact on behavior and mental health in a diverse sample of adolescent girls across six residential treatment settings.”

 

Bell and Suggs (1998) found success on physical activity programs among individuals with violent, anti-social and out of control behaviors.

 

“Trauma-informed sports have the potential to

impact positively a large number of traumatized children in

a relatively easy-to-deliver manner as all coaches can be laypersons

and not therapists. Given that this population has

chronic and severe mental health disturbances, finding a significant

impact in a program administered largely by youth

workers is compelling and merits further exploration”

 

DtG participants showed meaningful improvements in mental and physical health which is important for clinicians.

 

 

This goal is attained through live-action coaching to

caregivers in service of three main goals: 1) providing specific,

behaviorally-anchored expectations to children; 2) devoting

positive attention to children during play; and 3) providing

concrete, specific praise for positive behavior (Eyberg et al.

1995)

 

Players are taught to continue and perform despite their mistakes.

 

“interpersonal effectiveness

is taught in the “build your team” and “fill the tank” modules,

where players are taught to take responsibility for action,

provide leadership and coaching to one another, and support

and praise one another”

 

The DtG curriculum guide its players to build competency, self-regulation and strong player–team relationships.

 

Treatment as usual in the residential treatment setting involves structured activities, an adapted educational environment, psychiatric and medical consultation, and individual, group and family psychotherapy. Participants’ stay is typically 12 to 18 months, with a minimum of 6 months.

 

The programs are multidisciplinary and eclectic, drawing from trauma-informed models including DBT, ARC, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Participants who elected to enroll in the DtG based sports league continued with treatment as usual. Participants who elected not to enroll in the league participated in a group activity in their residential setting during games.

 

Bell (1997) The authors stated that competitive sports can show positive or negative impacts on one’s mental and physical health.

 

A sports man’s coach has important role in determining positive or negative impact of sports on his health.

 

Coach is responsible for developing human resources among players.

 

Competitive sports can promote self-motivation among players and thus help them cope in the tough and challenging situations.

 

The authors stated that competitive sports can show positive or negative impacts on one’s mental and physical health.

 

Coach can help learn useful life skills among their students which shows sports can have a role in teaching life skills.

 

This important responsibility of coach can make him help players to learn many healthy skills.

 

Competitive sports can promote self-motivation among players and thus help them cope in the tough and challenging situations.

The authors stated that competitive sports can show positive or negative impacts on one’s mental and physical health.

 

Coach can help learn useful life skills among their students which shows sports can have a role in teaching life skills and thus can reduce mental and physical health problems.

 

 

The coaches’ responsibilities show that he can be an important player in helping traumatized people to cope and stay healthy by treating their mental problems.

 

Competitive sports can promote self-motivation among players and thus help them cope in the tough and challenging situations. This will help them reduce their trauma symptoms.

Training a coach in teaching the life skills to players is in one way a partial definition of trauma-informed sports.

 

Best coach can help traumatized youth in learning several life skills as can be studied in this paper, thus coach can be trained on trauma principles to help players learn many skills that otherwise they can not in other situations and treatment settings.

 

Step 5. Notes and analysis The above findings and concepts provide a detailed view of trauma, and its different treatments. The findings related to the object of my study are listed which will help me provide many proofs and evidence in support of my research questions. The above findings and concepts explain the role of sports in trauma. Information on role of sports and other physical activities in trauma treatments is extracted and it will help me establish that yes sports is important in treatment of trauma. However these findings are not specific to trauma informed sports but general sports and physical activities These findings from different sources explain different treatment approaches used to treat trauma patients. The findings are very useful for my research because in addition to other approaches, it also lists the approaches using physical sports. Thus I can check on different treatment approaches in addition to sports and physical activities. This columns lists definitions and explanations and findings on trauma-informed sports.

 

The information extracted from the last few articles help me understand and explain trauma-informed sports. Understanding trauma-informed sports is important for my research because I am researching impact of trauma informed sports on treatment of individuals.