1. Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A meta-analysis.Educational psychology review13(1), 1-22.

This meta-analytic study was conducted to synthesize the quantitative research about the role of parental involvement in their children’s academic achievement. The study found that there exists small to moderate relationship between parental involvement and academic performance of the students. The study found this relationship to practically meaningful. However the study detailed that parent’s expectations from their children had highly significant relationship with their children’s academic achievement while in case of parental home supervision, this relationship was least important. The relationship is stronger in case of GPA analysis as compared to subject by subject performance analysis. The results of this paper are very significant to support my hypothesis.

  1. Desforges, C., & Abouchaar, A. (2003).The impact of parental involvement, parental support and family education on pupil achievement and adjustment: A review of literature. London: DfES Publications.

The main aim of this book is to do a comprehensive review of reliable literature resources to investigate and establish findings the relationship between parents and parenting, and students’ academic achievement and engagement. This book is a very comprehensive source on the issue and works as a database of reliable sources to inform the reader on many aspects of role of parental involvement on students’ academic achievement. The study can be divided into three major parts. First portion details impact of parental support and students’ achievement. The second part is about the impact of family learning on students’ achievement. And the third part is about impact of parents’ level of education on students academic achievement. The overall theme of the book is strongly related to my topic and will be used to add valuable information into my research.


  1. Jeynes, W. H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement a meta-analysis.Urban education42(1), 82-110.

This study analyzes the findings of 52 studies to investigate the impact of parental involvement on the academic performance of urban secondary school children. This statistical analysis is aimed at determining the overall impact of parental involvement as well as specific components of parental involvement. Four measures of assessment of students’ performance including grades, standardized tests, teacher’s rating scales, and academic attitudes and behavioral indices are used to determine students’ performance. The study found a significant impact of overall parental involvement for secondary school children. This impact of parental involvement is found on all variables of academic achievement.

  1. Jeynes, W. H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement.Urban education,40(3), 237-269.

Jeynes (2005) in this earlier study investigates the relationship of parental involvement and students’ academic achievement in urban elementary school students. This meta-analysis involves 41 prior studies to determine the impact of overall parental involvement and its subcategories on students’ academic achievement in elementary schools. This study also found significant impact of parental involvement with all variables of academic achievement. This study will provide findings about impact on elementary schools students’ achievement unlike the previous source which was about secondary school students.

  1. Fantuzzo, J., McWayne, C., Perry, M. A., & Childs, S. (2004). Multiple dimensions of family involvement and their relations to behavioral and learning competencies for urban, low-income children.School Psychology Review,33(4), 467-480.

This research investigated data of 144 urban head start children to examine the relationship between various dimensions of family involvement in early childhood education and classroom outcomes. The research used a multidimensional survey questionnaire to collect data from parents on family involvement. The study particularly focused the relationship between various dimensions of family involvement in relation to end of the year results, learning approaches, conduct problems, and receptive vocabulary. The study also investigated the impact of home-based involvement simultaneously with school-based involvement on various dimensions of students’ outcomes. Home-based involvement alone was a strong predictor of low conduct problems and better achievement scores and learning motivation, while the simultaneous approach did not show significant relationships.

  1. Hafiz, H. M. W., Tehsin, F., Malik, M. S., Muhammad, S., & Muhammad, A. K. (2013). Parental involvement and academic achievement: A study on secondary school students of Lahore, Pakistan.International Journal of Humanities and Social Science3(8), 209-223.

This study investigated 150 students of secondary (grade 9) from public and private schools to explore the impact of parental involvement on students’ academic outcomes. Four schools 2 private and 2 public were selected for the study. An equal number of male and female students was selected through random sampling. The results were supportive of parental involvement in terms of its positive impact on academic achievement of the students. The study supports the outcomes of previously discussed research sources. Thus this is another source to add to the reliability of the positive outcomes of parental involvement and hence I will use it as the positive support.

  1. Henderson, A. T. (1987).The Evidence Continues to Grow: Parent Involvement Improves Student Achievement. An Annotated Bibliography. National Committee for Citizens in Education Special Report.

This research analyzes the findings of 49 research studies on the effects of parental involvement on students’ academic achievement and level of school performance. Most of the research concludes that positive learning environment at home is strongly related to positive students’ outcomes. The study also finds that school-based programs to involve and train parents to involve with their children education, improves language skills, test performance, and school behavior. The study also investigates community involvement but that is out of scope for my review.

  1. Izzo, C. V., Weissberg, R. P., Kasprow, W. J., & Fendrich, M. (1999). A longitudinal assessment of teacher perceptions of parent involvement in children’s education and school performance.American journal of community psychology27(6), 817-839.

This study examines how parental involvement the children’s education changes with time and how does it affect the students social and academic outcomes. This is a longitudinal study where teachers provided data for 3 consecutive years on parental involvement for 1205 urban students studying kindergarten to 3rd grades. The data also included students’ outcomes for analysis purposes. The study explored the impact of four components of parental involvement on students’ outcomes. The four components were frequency of parent teacher contact, quality of parent teacher interactions, participation of parents in educational activities at home and their participation in school activities. The components of involvement and students outcomes were found to be moderately significant. This study will add more dimensions to my review and will be used to provide another view on the involvement.

  1. Semke, C. A., & Sheridan, S. M. (2012). Family-School Connections in Rural Educational Settings: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Literature.School Community Journal22(1), 21-47.

This paper is a critique of research methods and analytical approaches used in 18 empirical studies on family involvement, family-school partnerships, and students’ performance in the rural areas. The study finds parental participation and cooperation to be positively related to students’ outcomes. However, the analysis evaluates the resources and finds a need for further rigorous and systematic studies on the issue, as the current studies are limited in contexts and dimensions of research.

  1. Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S. D., Dornbusch, S. M., & Darling, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed.Child development63(5), 1266-1281.

This article investigates data on 6400 American adolescents age 14-18 years to find the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on their school performance. The selected sample was ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous. Data on various aspects of on adolescents’ school  engagement and school achievement were collected for analysis. Authoritative parenting predicted better school performance and stronger school engagement among adolescents. Non-authoritative parenting showed attenuation in the beneficial impacts on adolescents’ achievement and engagement at school. The study supports several previous sources to strengthen the argument in addition to providing an analysis of some new dimensions.

  1. Fehrmann, P. G., Keith, T. Z., & Reimers, T. M. (1987). Home influence on school learning: Direct and indirect effects of parental involvement on high school grades.The Journal of Educational Research80(6), 330-337.

This study examines the direct effects of perceived parental involvement on students school grades. Grades are directly related parental involvement. Parental involvement improves time spent on homework and that in turn contributes to better grades. The study concludes that in the current emphasis on finding means to enhance student academic performance, the potential effect of parental involvement in students’ academic and social outcomes should be considered

  1. Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement pragmatics and issues.Current directions in psychological science13(4), 161-164.

This study outlines some of the key mechanisms to help parental school involvement positively affect achievement of students. The study also identifies about how cross-cultural, economic and community context, and developmental levels are related to parental involvement and student achievement. The study proposes further research directions, focusing on the importance of considering students’ developmental stages, the context in which involvement takes place, and the multiple perspectives through which involvement may be assessed. The study not support the significant role of parental involvement in academic achievement of their children but also provides future directions for research and adding it to my review would bring value to my research.