Annotated Bibliography Smoking

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs–the United States, Office of Smoking and Health, 2008. Print.

In 2005, Center for Disease Control published an analysis report on Smoking Attributable Mortality (SAM), Year of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) and Productivity Losses in the United States due to smoking during 1997-2001. This source is an update of that report for the years 2000-2004.The source provides valued information based on reliable data analysis by CDC. The updated analysis indicates 443,000 premature deaths, 5.1 million years of potential life lost, and $96.8 billion loss in productivity. The source concludes on comprehensive tobacco-control recommendations, to reduce smoking to level so that it no longer remains a significant public health issue.


Eysenck, H J, and L J. Eaves. The Causes and Effects of Smoking. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 2012. Print.

The source gives an explanation for the causes and negative effects that a smoker is exposed to. The source reveals that cigarette smoking is associated with premature death resulting from nearly 30% of cancer deaths and 80% from chronic conditions. Comprehensive tobacco control recommendations are key for public health community with an objective of reducing smoking substantially so that there is there is no serious public health issues.


Fisher, George J, and Elmer Berry. The Physical Effects of Smoking: Preliminary Experimental Studies. New York: Assn. Press, 2007. Print.

The source discusses cigarette smoking as a behavior that imposes substantial costs on both health and financial costs of the society. Between 2004–2007, the average annual smoking expenditure for health-care was approximately $95 billion. Accounting for direct health-care expenditures and productivity losses (approximately $96billion), the total economic burden of smoking is approximately $193 billion per year. By comparison, investments in comprehensive, state-based tobacco prevention and control programs in fiscal year 2007 totaled $595 million, approximately 325-times less than the smoking-attributable costs.